Intrication de deux atomes en utilisant le blocage de Rydberg

Alpha Gaëtan 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique / Optique quantique
LCFIO - Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique
Abstract : Consider a quantum system composed of two sub-systems: this system is said to be entangled if there are quantum correlations between the states of the latter. The understanding and the engineering of entanglement have implications in quantum metrology, quantum information processing and in the study of strongly correlated systems, and constitutes the general context of this work. In this thesis, we demonstrate the realisation of an entangled state of two independently trapped atoms. We generate entanglement using Rydberg blockade. This phenomenon occurs when two atoms are close enough so that the interaction between two Rydberg atoms is strong: in this case the simultaneous excitation of the two atoms by the same driving pulse may be prevented. Thus, only one atom is excited and this creates correlations between their states, i. e. entanglement. In our experiment, two ground state (5S1/2) rubidium 87 atoms are independently trapped in optical tweezers, with a relative separation of 4 micrometers. By driving two-photon transitions between the 5S1/2 state and the 58D3/2 Rydberg state, we entangle the two atoms in the 5S1/2, F=1, mF=1 and 5S1/2, F=2, mF=2 sublevels. To quantify the amount of entanglement, we measure the fidelity with respect to the target state by driving Raman transitions between those two sublevels. The fidelity of the pairs of atoms still present at the end of the experiment is higher than the threshold value of 0.5, which proves the creation of an entangled state of the two atoms.
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Alpha Gaëtan. Intrication de deux atomes en utilisant le blocage de Rydberg. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00495772⟩

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