Abstract : This thesis presents the study of the quantum transport of matter waves, obtained from a Bose-Einstein condensate, in connection with electronic transport in solids. Indeed, cold atoms, which allow a very good control on the parameters of the system, are used nowadays to revisit fundamental problems of condensed matter physics. In this thesis, we study in particular the propagation of a condensate released into a one-dimensional optical guide in presence of a disorder created by laser speckle. This study leads to the first direct observation of the 1D Anderson localization of matter waves. This phenomenon, emblematic of the effect of disorder on the propagation of waves and initially predicted in condensed matter physics to explain the metal-insulator transition, has indeed been reported with different types of classical waves but had never been directly observed with matter waves. This work paves the way to more complex quantum transport experiments. In parallel, we study a new type of matter wave: the guided atom laser. This atom laser is propagating with a high de Broglie wavelength and offers the opportunity to control independently both its energy and flux. It is therefore well suited for studying quantum transport phenomena. We present in this thesis the characterization of its spectral width, performed via the measure of the transmission of the atom laser through a thick optical barrier.