Abstract : This work aims at understanding hip total joint cemented prostheses degradation by fretting corrosion. 316L stainless steel degradation, the femoral stem is made of this alloy, according to fretting against polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), model component of bone cement, has been particularly investigated. Two tests types have been carried out: in dry conditions and in Ringer solution close to, from its chlorides concentration, the physiological liquid composition. In a first time, from experimental conditions of displacement and normal load, the fretting map has been drawn for 316L/PMMA contact. This work allows, for sinusoidal displacement with a half amplitude equal to 40 μm and normal loads within the range from 42.5 N to 170 N, to fix gross slip conditions. Then, the fretting study, in dry conditions, between stainless steel and PMMA, exhibits the PMMA wear volume measurements according to dissipated energy. This material is worn contrary to stainless steel that is not worn. Stick slip phenomenon exists during fretting and increases according to the normal load. Due to the PMMA transparency, debris production and transport have been described during fretting experiments. Moreover, PMMA debris infrared analysis, on stainless steel surface, provides interesting findings on PMMA behaviour, i.e. configurations changes. In Ringer solution, a corrosive medium, stainless steel suffers significant degradation during fretting against PMMA and bone cement. During dissolution process at free corrosion potential, protons reduction seems to be added to the oxygen reduction. 316L exhibits a particular ‘W' wear shape. A crevice effect assisted by fretting could explain this particular dissolution. Moreover, dissipated energy changes according to the applied potential. Finally, current analysis shows that cathodic reaction exists inside the contact. Lastly, tests, made in dry and wet conditions, provide wear volumes measurements for PMMA and 316L to expect materials wear.