Abstract : The goal of the thesis is to develop theory, methods and tools for the compositional and incremental verification for component-based systems. We propose a compositional verification method for proving safety properties. The method is based on the use of two kinds of invariants: component invariants which express local aspects of systems and interaction invariants which characterize global constraints induced by synchronizations between components. We provide efficient methods for computing these invariants. We also propose a new technique that takes the incremental design of the system into account. The integration of verification into design process allows to detect an error as soon as it appears. Moreover, the technique helps to avoid redoing all the verification process by reusing intermediate verification results. It takes advantage of the system structure for coping with complexity of the global verification and therefore, reduces significantly the cost of verification in both time and memory usage. The methods have been implemented in D-Finder tool-set. The experimental results obtained on non trivial examples and case studies show the efficiency of our methods as well as the capacity of D-Finder.