Abstract : The interaction of an intense laser pulse of short duration with a plasma produces a plasma wave with large amplitude in its wake, which is associated with a longitudinal electric eld. It can be used to accelerate relativistic electrons injected into the wave to energies in the GeV range over distances of the order of a few centimeters, short compared to acceleration lengths in conventional accelerators. The control of the electron beam characteristics during the acceleration process is fundamental for achieving a usable laser-plasma acceleration stage. The main result of this thesis is the creation and characterization of a plasma wave in a weakly nonlinear regime over a length of several centimeters. Capillary tubes are used to guide the laser beam over these distances, while maintaining a large enough intensity (~ 1E17 W/cm²). The guided laser beam ionizes the gas in the tube and creates the plasma wave. A diagnostic based on the modification of the laser pulse spectrum was used to determine the amplitude of the plasma wave along the tube. The amplitude of the plasma wave was studied as a function of gas lling pressure, length of the capillary and laser energy. Experimental results are compared are in excellent agreement with analytical results and modeling . They show that the electric eld associated with the plasma wave is between 1 and 10GV/m over a length of up to 8 cm. This work has demonstrated the ability to create a controlled plasma wave in a weakly nonlinear regime.