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Développement d'une méthode de décontamination active des sédiments portuaires pollués en tributylétain par électromigration

Yan Yvon 1
1 LCABIE - Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement
IPREM - Institut des sciences analytiques et de physico-chimie pour l'environnement et les materiaux
Abstract : Legislation for dredged material is becoming more severe. Remediation strategies for pollutants and organotin compounds more specifically are becoming a very important issue. This is particularly the case for tributyltin (TBT) due to its high toxicity. Different methods for remediation of polluted sediments exist. Some are based on natural attenuation phenomenons which are often long and limited to some pollutants, while others stabilize and confine the pollution by chemical or thermal treatment. The use of electroremediation for dredge sediments is a novel approach which has been applied to contaminated soils. This innovative technology for sediments has only received few applications at the pilot or industrial stage on an international basis. The basic principle of the electro remediation is to exploit the migration of ionic species under the effect of an electric field between one or more cathodes and one or more anodes located in a porous medium. The main phenomena for remediation are: electromigration, for ionic species, to the corresponding electrode (to the cathode for cations, to the anode for anions) and electroosmosis, for uncharged species, mostly to the cathode. The effectiveness of electroremediation is controlled by the flow of pollutants in the soil solution, their transport velocity and their concentration in the liquid phase. Thus, optimization of the processes depends simultaneously on electrochemical factors that control the transport of pollutants and on physical and chemical factors that influence the matter transfer. In this thesis, several experiments were conducted on a solid matrix model and on a real sediment to study the effect of decontamination of theses matrices under electroremediation. The matrices were a model contaminated sediment (TBT spiked kaolin) and severely contaminated sediment. Decontamination experiments were performed under various conditions of pH and potential electrical gradient. These conditions were also applied to contaminated sediments. Results for the decontamination of sediments show that a TBT reduction level better than 90 % can be obtained for the solid matrix model, TBT spiked kaolin, and can reach up to 70 % reduction for natural sediment. They also show that the compounds preferentially move to the cathode. We have identified the competition between two mechanisms: transfer / transport of butyltin to the electrodes and transport of reactive which help the in-situ degradation of these species. This work has demonstrated very promising results for the active degradation of TBT at pilot stage. They offer a promising alternative for the active remediation of contaminated sediments from dredging operations.
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Yan Yvon. Développement d'une méthode de décontamination active des sédiments portuaires pollués en tributylétain par électromigration. Chimie. Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, 2008. Français. ⟨tel-00477602⟩

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