La qualité de l'air en milieu aéroportuaire : étude sur l'aéroport Paris-Charles-De-Gaulle

Abstract : The work presented here deals with the evaluation of air quality at Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle airport. The objective was to evaluate the local and regional impact of airport activity. This study is centered on long term measurements of nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3) and hydrocarbons concentrations. We calculated the contribution of airport activity to NOx concentrations in north and south stations. Results showed this contribution was 18% (12 µ g.m-3) from southern wind and 47 % (25 µ g.m-3) from northern wind. This analysis had been performed from 3 years data (2005-2007). NOx concentrations had been also analyzed with a neuronal model. This model was built in order to estimate concentrations according to meteorological (wind direction, wind velocity, temperature, boundary layers) and temporal parameters (day, hour, difference between week-day and week-end). The neuronal model allowed to estimate NOx concentrations for punctual scenarios. Field campaigns targeting hydrocarbons were conducted during this thesis. The speciation of hydrocarbons emitted by engine aircraft was characterized. These results showed engine aircraft hydrocarbon speciation was similar to motor diesel hydrocarbon speciation. This does not allow for the clear establishment of a characteristic profile that differentiates aircraft emissions from those of vehicles. Hydrocarbon speciation observed at the airport was also evaluated. Results showed that the hydrocarbon speciation detected at the airport was comparable to that observed within an urban environment as well as at other airports. Moreover, average concentrations were akin to those observed within an urban environment. The estimation of regional impact of airport activity was preliminary studied with a chemicaltransport model, CHIMERE. This study permitted the evaluation of the spatial extent of the impact of airport activity for two episodes. These episodes correspond to summer pollution by ozone and winter pollution by NO2. Simulations showed the contribution downwind of the airport was lower than 5 µ g.m-3 for 15 km
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Life Sciences. Université Paris-Est, 2009. French. <NNT : 2009PEST0054>
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Celine Puente Lelievre. La qualité de l'air en milieu aéroportuaire : étude sur l'aéroport Paris-Charles-De-Gaulle. Life Sciences. Université Paris-Est, 2009. French. <NNT : 2009PEST0054>. <tel-00477424>

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