Abstract : The physical properties of a material are intimately related to its crystalline structure and in the case of doped ions they are dependent on to the sites they occupy. The first part of this work is dedicated to the diphosphate material of sodium and zinc Na2ZnP2O7, glassy and crystallized for doped ions of Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+ and Eu3+. The crystallized phases were obtained by the Czochralski method whereas the glasses were obtained by quenching from the molten state. A set of physical characteristics were studied (Raman, infrared, EPR, optical absorption, luminescence) to determine the sites occupied by the doped ions and its influence on the optical properties. The second part of this work consists of a better knowledge of lead-free dielectric materials belonging to the family of Perovskite, more particularly to NaNbO3-BaTiO3 solid solution. Single crystals were obtained by the flux method and were characterized using several techniques: X-rays diffraction, microanalysis, thermal evolution of ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains; dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric measurements.