Abstract : This thesis is related to the SPIRAL project which consists in the production, the ionisation and the acceleration of multicharged radioactive ions. A first target-ion source system, dedicated to the production of gazeous ions, called NANOGAN II, has been built, studied, and tested. "Off line" and "on line" tests have demonstrated that this target-ion source system fits the requirements of the SPIRAL project and that it is ready to be used inside the production cave. From these tests, the expected SPIRAL beam intensities were calculated. A detailled study of the diffusion of atom inside the graphite target have been performed. The expression of the diffusion efficiency has been deduced from the basic diffusion laws (Fick's laws). This efficiency depends on the following parameters : the temperature, the grain size, the Arrhenius coefficients and the half-life time. The development of three experimental methods and the comparison of the experimental datas with the theory allowed us to further understand the diffusion process of atoms inside the production target and to deduce the Arrhenuis coefficients for noble gaz. Another study dedicated to the temperature distribution inside the production target is presented. This study predicts that the target can be kept at a high temperature of 2400 K more than one month. Two other developments have been studied for SPIRAL. The first, called 1+/n+, consists in the injection of a monocharged ion beam inside and E.C.R. ion source in order to boost the charge state of the beam. This method will allow to use the high efficiency multicharged ion source outside the production cave and, by this way, to operate with different kind of monocharged ion source dedicated to specific elements. The second development, called SPIRAL-II, is devoted to the production of radioactive neutron-rich atoms created with the induced uranium fission using fast neutrons. The neutron beam stems from the stripping/break-up of a deuteron beam inside a converter. This very promising solution is in progress and belongs to a European Researsh program.