Abstract : Soil fertility of Mount Cameroon volcano has been attracting, for centuries, a mosaic of populations in sometimes delicate cohabitation, in a context of intense cultural melting pot. Acting as living archives of history jolts, the pedological memory records and restores the brand of uses, and by there the brand of tragic episodes of human occupation. In return, the social memory highlights the peculiarities of the environment, appropriates its originalities and adapts a system of representations and diversified agrarian practices: commanded by the survival of the group when it is about peasant communities but also by the financial motivations of industrial plantations of international dimensions. The last decades, particularly rich in social transformations, gave place to an acceleration of the events chronology which repercussions at soil scale are readable. The analogy of functioning of the social and pedological memories, both by their structural resemblance and by their permanent interactions, constitutes the foundations of this work. The study of some memory indicators allows us to know, in an accurate way, the health of soils as that of the societies which live from them. This thesis contributes, through the implementation of a multidisciplinary approach allying ethnology and pedology, to identify the mechanisms of the interaction between the social and pedological memory of Mount Cameroon.