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Gradient d'urbanisation et communautés végétales d'espaces boisés : Approche à plusieurs échelles dans trois agglomérations du Massif armoricain

Abstract : The increase of urbanization during the last decades (and the related losses of biodiversity) has resulted in a need to consider biodiversity conservation in urban areas. The present study focuses on the changes in plant communities of small woodlands (about 1.5ha) along an urban-rural gradient in three urban areas of the Massif armoricain in north-western France. Plant communities are strongly affected by the degree of urbanization. Urban woodlands are richer in exotic species but indigenous and forest species are dominant in all woodlands. However, the abundance of some indigenous species changes along the urban-rural gradient which may be related to their biological attributes. The local environment, in particular soil pH and soil fertility, seems to be the most important factor determining community differences along the gradient. Forest history and the dispersal ability of species are of minor importance in explaining these differences. At the scale of individual woodlands, the edge effect is an important factor influencing species richness: edges are richer in species in urban as well as in rural woodlands. The species richness of the litter seed bank changes with distance from the edge but is not much different between urban and rural woodlands. Species composition differs largely between litter seed bank and established vegetation. Non-forest species are more frequent in the litter seed bank than in the established vegetation indicating reduced seedling recruitment compared with forest species (that are dominant in the established vegetation). This work contributes to a better understanding of ecological mechanisms involved in the response of plant species to urbanization and could improve the integration of woodlands in urban planning and management.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 18, 2010 - 3:21:17 PM
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Jeanne Vallet. Gradient d'urbanisation et communautés végétales d'espaces boisés : Approche à plusieurs échelles dans trois agglomérations du Massif armoricain. Biologie végétale. Université d'Angers, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00464972⟩

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