Abstract : Polarization measurements provide a set of independant observables and, thanks to interference terms, discriminate small contributions of the interaction. In this regard, deuteron is of particular interest since it's the only bound NN system and thus a convenient nucleus for studying the short range behaviour of the two nucleons interaction. Also its isospin zero makes it an excellent isoscalar probe, and its spin 1 permits to study tensor polarization observables. The polarimeter POLDER, detailed in this thesis, is the unique set-up at the present time which allows deuteron tensor polarization measurements in the range of kinetic energy from 175 to 500 MeV. After introducing the polarization formalism, this thesis describes the experimental set-up and the charge exchange reaction H(d,pp)n on which the polarimeter is based. The results of calibration runs are detailed and provide the analysing powers and ﬁgures of merit of the polarimeter. A ﬁrst experiment on polarization measurement has been achieved on deuterons scattered by Calcium 40 and Carbon 12. It has allowed the determination, based for the ﬁrst time on tensor observables, of signature for isoscalar spin ﬂip on the 12.7 MeV excited state of Carbon 12. Finally, an overview of the foreseen study of the reaction H(p,d)pion and the elas- tic scattering electron-deuteron using POLDER, shows the opportunities opened by the achievement of such a device.