Abstract : To develop the country and to answer the agricultural, urban, tourist and industrial requests, Spain set up a policy based on the construction and the management of hydraulic infrastructures (dams, transfers of water between hydrographical basins, etc). This policy, which allowed the economic development of certain agricultural or tourist areas, generated social and environmental problems: expropriation of villages submerged by reserves of water, devastation of ecosystems, overexploitation of subterranean water or qualitative degradation of the water resources. Supported by the lobbies of agriculture, of construction, the real estate and tourism, the development model, which aims at increasing profitability and profits is founded on an increase in the offer out of water, whatever are the social, economic, territorial, environmental consequences. Sustainable development, management of the request water, saving in water, water shortage, drought, etc are, in Spain, themes of the actuality. The speeches of the policies, the actors of the economic sector and the interventions of the medias make them a broad place. What is it in reality? Is the Spanish society turn away of it model consumerist and profitability at all costs? Up to which point the development can it justify the exploitation, sometimes overexploitation, water resources? In order to answer these interrogations, two spaces of study were selected: Aragon and the Area of Murcie. These two areas illustrate in an extreme way, sometimes even caricatural, the stakes which management and the relation with water cause.