Techniques hybrides de recherche exacte et approchée : application à des problèmes de transport

Abstract : We are interested in this thesis in the possibilities of hybridization between the exact methods and the methods heuristics to be able to take advantage of each of both approaches: optimality of the exact resolution, the less determinist character and the speed of the constituent heuristics. In the objective to resolve problems NP-hard of relatively important size such as the transportation problems, we are interested in the last two parts of this report in the conception of incomplete methods based on these hybridizations. In the first part, we are going to be interested in the methods of resolution by tree search. We introduce a new approach for the management of the decisions of connection, which we call Dynamic Learning Search ( DLS). This method defines in a dynamic way rules of priority for the selection of variables in every knot and the order of the values on which to connect. These rules are conceived in an optics of genericity, so as to be able to use the method independently of the treated problem. The general principle is to take into account by a technique of learning of the impact which had the decisions of connection in the parts already investigated in the tree. We estimate the efficiency of the method proposed on two classic problems: a combinatorial optimization problem and a constraints satisfaction problem. The second part of this report handles large neighborhood search. We present a new operator of neighborhood, who determines by an algorithm of dynamic programming the optimal sub-sequence of a road in a graph. We show that this operator is quite particularly intended for problems of tours for which all the vertices do not require to be visited. We call this class of problem the Problems of Tours with Partial Cover and present some problems being a part of this class. Chapters 3 and 4 show, through consequent experimental tests, the efficiency of the operator which we propose by applying this search to wide neighborhood on two problems, respectively the Traveling Purchaser Problem (TPP) and Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem ( GTSP). We show while this operator can be combined in a effective way with classic metaheuristics, such as genetic algorithms or algorithms of Ant Colony Optimization
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Informatique [cs]. Université d'Avignon, 2008. Français
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Boris Bontoux. Techniques hybrides de recherche exacte et approchée : application à des problèmes de transport. Informatique [cs]. Université d'Avignon, 2008. Français. <tel-00459367>

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