Abstract : Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are ideal candidates to reinforce thermoset polymers due to their exceptional intrinsic properties. The resulting multifunctional nanocomposite has electrical, thermal and mechanical properties sensitively higher than pristine polymer. Therefore, this new material possesses various potential applications, and particularly in the domain of electronics and aerospace. The aim of this PhD thesis is oriented towards two directions. In the first one, we establish efficient techniques to produce composite materials with multifunctional properties. Then, the objective consists in the enhancement of these properties by proposing valuable alternatives to previous results cited in the litterature. In the first chapter, we present the state of the art research concerning the materials studied during this work. Among these, there are in particular: CNTs, hybrids constituted of CNTs and alumina microparticles, electronically conducting and thermoset polymers. Moreover, this chapter deals with the characteristics of each material, i.e. elaboration techniques, structures and properties. The second chapter of the manuscript contains first, the elaboration techniques allowing the synthesis of high quality nanocomposites according to international standards. Then, we analyze the properties of these nanomaterials, and particularly in terms of electrical and thermal transports. Further characterization procedures allow better understanding of the obtained structures in a domain ranging from macroscopic to atomic scales. This is realized using scanning/transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, EELS, XPS, and AFM. Electrical and thermal conductivity measurements obtained on these new materials give prominence to the necessity of some improvements. Thereby, we have focused our research on the physico-chemical phenomena at the matrix/filler interface. We have proposed to modify the surface of CNTs, in order to favour the matrix/filler cohesion, but also and mainly to decrease contact resistances between the randomly distributed CNTs within the polymer matrix. Finally, the last chapter deals with the surface functionalization of CNTs using electrochemistry. First, we have implemented an accurate technique to deposit a nanometric layer of electronically conducting polymer on the surface of CNTs. This conducting polymer, namely polypyrrole (Ppy) is in the meantime biocompatible. The accuracy and efficiency of our approach are demonstrated through various characterization techniques, and particularly using transmission electron microscopy. Further studies using AFM coupled with a resiscope indicate the electrical resistance distribution performed on CNT-Ppy hybrids. In the second part of this chapter, we present our method to control precisely the thickness of the Ppy layer around the CNTs.