Gestion des ressources et peuplement des espaces pastoraux au défi de la modernité. Le cas des pasteurs de la puna péruvienne.

Abstract : In the Andes, pastoral societies, specialised in multi-species farming of alpacas, lamas, sheep and bovin, live in la puna, a stage located at an altitude of 4300 meters where the bioclimatic constraints prevent any type of culture. The production of alpaca fibres destined for international exports represents the main resource for these lowly dense populations, scattered with their herds. Everyone has to move to get to natural resources as well as to deal the produces or buy new foodstuffs. However, for the past few years, the combined effects of the ever-shrinking level of available resources per person in parallel with a progressive opening up to modernity have become a growing challenge for these societies which are still in demographic transition and significantly exposed to global warming. The question of adopting practices that would optimise the farming systems without compromising the resources while operating within compliance with pastoral obligations is at the heart of this analysis. This thesis is focused on the flexibility of the pastoral societies, on their ability to cope with these new challenges. The data, resulting from extensive field research which was conducted in the south of Peru, rely on the concept of settlement system which integrates, in a systems analysis, the study of resources using terms as well as the social relationships, the conditions of mobility and residence. It highlights shepherds' adaptability. Firstly, new optimising breeding practices, based on imported development models or resulting from local communities' inventiveness, are adopted. Secondly, the creation of new collaboration networks encourages economies of scale and, with the multiplication of the residential locations and the increasing number of travels generated by the family division, allows an access to new resources. The comparative study conducted in this analysis takes into account the different forms of flexibility. It brings out an ever-broader range of conceivable technics and analyse the different factors that would influence the shepherds' choice within that range.
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Theses
Géographie. Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, 2009. Français
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 17, 2010 - 4:02:32 PM
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Marion Charbonneau. Gestion des ressources et peuplement des espaces pastoraux au défi de la modernité. Le cas des pasteurs de la puna péruvienne.. Géographie. Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, 2009. Français. <tel-00457546>

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