Abstract : Despite recent safety measures, the number of traffic accidents in developed countries such as France remains still high. Consequently, a better knowledge of the human body tolerance to impact is still needed, in order to design car equipments capable to provide the best protection during a crash. As the head represents one of the most vulnerable body segment in a road accident, the protection of this area is still a priority. This PhD thesis is focused on the human skull bone behaviour and on its tissue features. Bone samples are harvested from fresh, frozen or embalmed human skullcaps and then submitted to three point bending tests, at various strain rates. Besides, medical imaging is used to determine the physical and the structural characteristics of the human cranial bone. These properties are confronted with the mechanical parameters obtained from the experimental tests. The following step consists in highlighting the tissue characteristics contribution for the simulation of the mechanical skull bone behaviour, using the finite element method. This work underlines the importance of the personalization of the finite element models of the skull, to simulate its behaviour perfectly when submitted to an impact, and to provide more accurate injury prediction tools.