Abstract : Perceiving or understanding the environment surrounding of a vehicle is a very important step in building driving assistant systems or autonomous vehicles. In this thesis, we study problems of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) with detection, classification and tracking moving objects in context of dynamic outdoor environments focusing on using laser scanner as a main perception sensor. It is believed that if one is able to accomplish these tasks reliably in real time, this will open a vast range of potential automotive applications. The first contribution of this research is made by a grid-based approach to solve both problems of SLAM with detection of moving objects. To correct vehicle location from odometry we introduce a new fast incremental scan matching method that works reliably in dynamic outdoor environments. After good vehicle location is estimated, the surrounding map is updated incrementally and moving objects are detected without a priori knowledge of the targets. Experimental results on datasets collected from different scenarios demonstrate the efficiency of the method. The second contribution follows the first result after a good vehicle localization and a reliable map are obtained. We now focus on moving objects and present a method of simultaneous detection, classification and tracking moving objects. A model-based approach is introduced to interpret the laser measurement sequence over a sliding window of time by hypotheses of moving object trajectories. The data-driven Markov chain Monte Carlo (DDMCMC) technique is used to solve the data association in the spatio-temporal space to effectively find the most likely solution. We test the proposed algorithm on real-life data of urban traffic and present promising results. The third contribution is an integration of our perception module on a real vehicle for a particular safety automotive application, named Pre-Crash. This work has been performed in the framework of the European Project PReVENT-ProFusion in collaboration with Daimler AG. A comprehensive experimental evaluation based on relevant crash and non-crash scenarios is presented which confirms the robustness and reliability of our proposed method.