Abstract : Studying pest spatial dynamics should help developing efficient integrated management including organization of spatial distribution of crop protection strategies at the landscape scale, and selection of landscape structures unfavorable for pest. In this thesis, we focused on spatial dynamics of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), the main insect pest of apple and pear orchards in southeastern France. We studied the landscape effects on the densities of this pest using a correlative approach at the scale of a fruit growing area. We developed a theoretical model of spatial dynamics in order to infer ecological mechanisms from correlative patterns. We also analyzed the spatial distribution of larvae at the orchard scale and studied local landscape effects. Codling moth densities were significantly related to landscape characteristics both at large and local scales. The number of codling moth was negatively correlated to the proportion of conventional host orchards in the surroundings. We showed that this relation may be a result of landscape heterogeneity and dispersal of the pest. The number of codling moth was also lower in those areas protected from the dominant wind. In some orchards, codling moth larvae were significantly aggregated and tended to be fewer in the proximity of the hedgerows with a potential effect of the flora diversity in the nearest hedgerow. Finally, we modeled fruit damage as a function of adult codling moth temporal dynamics. Damages were positively related to the number of trapped adults but this relation depended on local (crop protection) and landscape factors.