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Theses

Approche micromécanique du remodelage osseux

Abstract : The understanding of the cortical bone remodelling process at the microscopic scale is essential in the prediction of the risk of fracture. Indeed, bone remodelling allows the perpetual regeneration of damage or old bone. The determining factors as well as the consequences of the phenomenon on the mechanical parameters of the microstructure are assessed. An experimental and numerical approach is proposed. Eight femurs from old women are analysed. Experiments are achieved at different scales. At the macroscopical scale, the Young modulus and the fracture parameters are estimated through compression testing and their eventual relations with the morphometrical characteristics (age, porosity and mineral density) are checked. Analyses of the local deformation evolution and of nanoindentation tests give access to the micro- and nanoscales and reveal the bone heterogeneity. Bone damage, especially the stage of microcracks initiation and the heterogeneity of the Young modulus as well as the mineral density are assessed. Macroscopically, porosity is determining. Microscopically, the mechanical values ob- tained, particularly the deformation value at the stage of microcracks initiation, are implemented in the numerical simulation. A bone remodelling scenario is carried out in the former experimental microstructures, supposed damageable. A damage evolution law is set and is improved by taking into account the fatigue damage through a time homogenization method. The factors of remodelling activation and the mechanical parameters evolution during the remodelling process are investigated. Eventually, the interaction between the biological phenomenon and the mechanical behaviour, at the osteon scale, is revealed.
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 4, 2010 - 11:54:52 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00453306, version 1

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Anne Devulder. Approche micromécanique du remodelage osseux. Autre. Ecole Centrale Paris, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009ECAP0020⟩. ⟨tel-00453306⟩

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