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Étude des vagues extrêmes en eaux peu profondes

Abstract : The main objective of these investigations is to study the dynamics of various types of extreme waves in shallow water, more particularly tsunami waves and freak waves. For modelling and analyze, a series of numerical simulations is realized using a Boundary Integral Equation Method. First we consider numerically the dynamics of the solitary waves, simple model to simulate a tsunami wave, where the runup will be more particularly developed. We present some comparisons of a breaking solitary wave on a sloping beach with an experimental approach, to validate the BIEM model. A method of numerical generation of these waves is then developed. Finally a full study on the head-on collision of two Tanaka solitary waves is performed. A new phenomenon is discovered and then presented, the residual falling jet formation appearing from a threshold value of the nonlinearity parameter a/h. We consider then numerically the generation of freak waves in shallow water by energy focusing due to the dispersive nature of water waves. This work attempts to study among others the influence of wind on the dynamics of these waves. The sheltering mechanism proposed by Jeffreys is modified by introducing a threshold in local slope above which air flow separation occurs over steep waves crests. These waves are then amplified and their lifetime is significantly increased. These results are similar to those obtained in deep water.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 19, 2010 - 4:08:00 PM
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Julien Chambarel. Étude des vagues extrêmes en eaux peu profondes. Physique [physics]. Université de Provence - Aix-Marseille I, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00448656⟩

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