Abstract : This thesis is dedicated to the study of Clementine near infrared (NIR) lunar data. The Moon is the only planetary body for which we have at the same time well-documented samples (groudtruth) and global remote sensing data which are not perturbed by an atmosphere. It is therefore the most favorable case to develop and to test data analysis techniques, which can then be extrapolated to other airless bodies. Clementine NIR data are in the public domain since 1995. Nevertheless, they had not been exploited yet due to severe calibration problems. The first part of this work focuses on the reduction of the data, giving access to a data set which has so far no equivalent in terms of spatial resolution and spectral domain. From this data set, problems regarding the identification of minerals and the extrapolation of the knowledge of few sites to unsampled areas have been investigated. Olivine, which is associated with the lunar mantle, has rarely been detected on the lunar surface. The scientific analysis of NIR data conducted here has led to the identification of olivine-rich areas within Aristarchus and Copernicus craters. The systematic analysis of the spectral and chemical properties of representative lunar samples and their link with Clementine NIR data has provided the basis for a new iron mapping technique. This technique is based on the discrimination between compositional effects and maturity effects linked to space weathering processes (micrometeorite bombardment and solar wind particles). Such methods should also be useful to investigate the mineralogy of other airless bodies such as Mercury and the asteroids, and represent a first step toward the analysis of the more complex case of Mars.