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Résistance du pommier à la tavelure (Venturia inaequalis) : Recherche de nouveaux loci et construction de génotypes "prototypes" en vue d'une gestion durable de la résistance

Abstract : Worldwide, most of cultivated apple varieties (Malus x domestica) are susceptible to scab (fungus Venturia inaequalis). Genetic resistance is a major tool to reduce the amounts of fungicides in commercial orchards. Current strategies of genetic control are mainly based on the use of few major genes. The breakdown of the Vf major gene, introgressed from the wild species M. floribunda, clearly shows the limits of such breeding strategies. In such a context, the objective of this thesis is to study apple scab resistance factors for a durable management of the resistance in front of pathogen adaptation capacity. Two approaches were applied: (i) searching new resistance loci in the resistant variety ‘Dülmener Rosenapfel' and within a pedigreed population of the INRA breeding programme; (ii) recombination of different (major and partial) resistance factors in a half-diallel design, and comparison of the relative efficiency of these genetic combinations towards pathogen variability. A new major gene, Rvi14, was characterised in the variety ‘Dülmener Rosenapfel', together with two QTL: the first one co-localised with Rvi14, and the second one with a broad-spectrum QTL already identified in other genetic backgrounds. The study of the pedigreed population confirmed the frequent polymorphism at this second QTL and revealed different alleles at a third QTL co-localising with the Vf gene. The analysis of different genetic combinations allowed us to develop a model assessing the resistance level of apple genotypes according to the resistance factors they carry and the fungal isolates/races they face. The gained results induced a general discussion on the efficiency of resistance loci detection methods and the use of these loci for a durable management of the resistance.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00445904
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Submitted on : Monday, January 11, 2010 - 3:28:07 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, June 6, 2020 - 2:33:38 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, November 30, 2016 - 10:28:24 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00445904, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 248626

Citation

Vanessa Soufflet-Freslon. Résistance du pommier à la tavelure (Venturia inaequalis) : Recherche de nouveaux loci et construction de génotypes "prototypes" en vue d'une gestion durable de la résistance. Biologie végétale. Université d'Angers, 2008. Français. ⟨tel-00445904⟩

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