G. Alory, T. Et, and . Delcroix, Interannual sea level changes and associated mass transports in the tropical Pacific from TOPEX/Poseidon data and linear model results, J. Geophys. Res, vol.107, issue.C10, pp.315310-1029, 1964.

S. P. Anderson, R. A. Weller, and E. R. Lukas, Surface Buoyancy Forcing and the Mixed Layer of the Western Pacific Warm Pool: Observations and 1D Model Results, Journal of Climate, vol.9, issue.12, pp.3056-3085, 1996.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<3056:SBFATM>2.0.CO;2

D. L. Anderson, E. S. Sarachik, P. J. Webster, and L. M. Rothstein, The TOGA decade: Reviewing the progress of El Niño research and prediction, J. Geophys. Res, vol.103, issue.14, pp.169-183, 1998.

K. Ando, M. J. Et, and . Mcphaden, Variability of surface layer hydrography in the tropical Pacific Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.10, issue.C5, pp.63-23078, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/97JC01443

R. T. Barber, F. P. Et, and . Chavez, Biological Consequences of El Nino, Biological consequences of El Niño, pp.1203-1210, 1983.
DOI : 10.1126/science.222.4629.1203

C. B. Barber, D. P. Dobkin, and H. T. Huhdanpaa, The quickhull algorithm for convex hulls, ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, vol.22, issue.4, pp.469-483, 1996.
DOI : 10.1145/235815.235821

D. S. Battisti, A. C. Et, and . Hirst, Interannual Variability in a Tropical Atmosphere???Ocean Model: Influence of the Basic State, Ocean Geometry and Nonlinearity, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.46, issue.12, pp.1687-1712, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<1687:IVIATA>2.0.CO;2

A. Bentamy, P. Queffeulou, Y. Quilfen, and E. K. Katsaros, Ocean surface wind fields estimated from satellite active and passive microwave instruments, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.37, issue.5, pp.2469-2486, 1999.
DOI : 10.1109/36.789643

C. Bosc, T. Et, and . Delcroix, Observed equatorial Rossby waves and ENSO-related warm water volume changes in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.115, issue.3, pp.10-1029, 2008.
DOI : 10.1029/2007JC004613

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00287144

C. Bosc, T. Delcroix, and E. C. Maes, Barrier layer variability in the western Pacific warm pool from, J. Geophys. Res, pp.10-1029, 2000.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00406884

J. Boulanger, C. Et, and . Menkes, The Trident Pacific model. Part 2: role of long equatorial wave reflection on sea surface temperature anomalies during the 1993???1998 TOPEX/POSEIDON period, Climate Dynamics, vol.17, issue.2-3, pp.175-186, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/PL00013734

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00772152

M. A. Cane, E. S. Et, and . Sarachik, Forced baroclinic ocean motions. I. The linear equatorial unbounded case, J. Mar. Res, vol.34, pp.629-665, 1976.

M. A. Cane, E. S. Et, and . Sarachik, The response of a linear baroclinic equatorial ocean to periodic forcing, J. Mar. Res, vol.39, pp.651-693, 1981.

S. A. Changnon, Impacts of 1997???98 El Ni??o Generated Weather in the United States, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.80, issue.9, pp.1819-1828, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<1819:IOENOG>2.0.CO;2

C. D. , M. G. Schlax, J. M. Lyman, and G. C. Johnson, Equatorially trapped Rossby waves in the presence of meridionally sheared baroclinic flow in the Pacific Ocean, Progress in Oceanography, vol.56, pp.323-380, 2003.

S. Cravatte, J. P. Boulanger, and E. J. Picaut, Reflection of intraseasonal equatorial Rossby waves at the western boundary of the Pacific Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.107, issue.C10, p.31, 2004.
DOI : 10.1029/2004GL019679

M. F. Cronin, M. J. Et, and . Mcphaden, Barrier layer formation during westerly wind bursts, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.13, issue.C12, pp.10-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/2001JC001171

C. De-boor, A Practical Guide to Splines, 1978.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4612-6333-3

C. De-boyer-montégut, G. Madec, A. S. Fischer, A. Lazar, and E. D. Iudicone, Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.32, issue.2, pp.1200310-1029, 2004.
DOI : 10.1029/2004JC002378

T. Delcroix, J. P. Boulanger, F. Masia, and C. Menkes, Geosat-derived sea level and surface current anomalies in the equatorial Pacific during the 1986???1989 El Ni??o and La Ni??a, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.21, issue.C12, pp.25093-25107, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/94JC02138

T. Delcroix, G. Eldin, M. H. Radenac, J. Toole, and E. E. Firing, Variation of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, 1986???1988, Variations of the western equatorial Pacific ocean, pp.5423-5447, 1986.
DOI : 10.1029/92JC00127

T. Delcroix, G. Et, and . Eldin, Observations Hydrologiques dans l'Océan Pacifique Tropical Ouest. Campagnes SURTROPAC 1 à 17, de janvier 1984 à août 1992, p.78, 1995.

T. Delcroix, F. Baurand, G. Eldin, F. Gallois, Y. Gouriou et al., Rapport de la mission FRONTALIS 1 à bord du Navire Océanographique l'Alis (Frontalis Cruise Report), 29 mars, pp.22-27, 2001.

T. Delcroix, S. Cravatte, and M. J. Mcphaden, Decadal variations and trends in tropical Pacific sea surface salinity since 1970, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.29, issue.1, pp.10-1029, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JC003801

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00280371

T. Delcroix, B. Dewitte, Y. Dupenhoat, F. Masia, and E. J. Picaut, Equatorial waves and warm pool displacements during the 1992-1998 El Ni??o Southern Oscillation events: Observation and modeling, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.19, issue.9, pp.26045-26062, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JC900113

T. Delcroix, M. Et, and . Mcphaden, Interannual sea surface salinity and temperature changes in the western Pacific warm pool during, J. Geophys. Res, vol.107, pp.12-8002101029, 1992.

T. Delcroix, M. Mcphaden, A. Dessier, and Y. Gouriou, Time and space scales for sea surface salinity in the tropical oceans, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.52, issue.5, pp.787-813, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.dsr.2004.11.012

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00280368

T. Delcroix, J. Et, and . Picaut, Zonal displacement of the western equatorial Pacific ???fresh pool???, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.73, issue.C1, pp.1087-1098, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/97JC01912

B. Dewitte, S. Illig, L. Parent, Y. Dupenhoat, L. Gourdeau et al., Tropical Pacific baroclinic mode contribution and associated long waves for the 1994???1999 period from an assimilation experiment with altimetric data, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.28, issue.C5, p.312110, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2002JC001362

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00434512

N. Ducet, P. Le-traon, and E. G. Reverdin, Global high-resolution mapping of ocean circulation from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and -2, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.98, issue.C8, pp.477-19498, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JC900063

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00772161

F. Durand, T. Et, and . Delcroix, On the Variability of the Tropical Pacific Thermal Structure during the 1979???96 Period, as Deduced from XBT Sections, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.30, issue.12, pp.3261-3269, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(2000)030<3261:OTVOTT>2.0.CO;2

G. Eldin, M. Rodier, and M. Radenac, Physical and nutrient variability in the upper equatorial Pacific associated with westerly wind forcing and wave activity in October 1994, Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol.44, issue.9-10, pp.1783-1800, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/S0967-0645(97)00023-4

G. Eldin, T. Delcroix, and M. Rodier, The frontal area at the eastern edge of the western equatorial Pacific, J. Geophys. Res, pp.10-1029, 2001.

G. Eldin, M. Rodier, T. Delcroix, C. Maes, and R. L. Borgne, The frontal zone at the eastern boundary of the western tropical Pacific warm pool: displacements and structure variability associated with intraseasonal forcing. Poster presentation at the International meeting, pp.22-28, 2005.

W. J. Emery, R. E. Et, and . Thomson, Data and their analysis methods in physical oceanography, p.634, 1998.

C. Eriksen, Equatorial Wave Vertical Modes Observed in a Western Pacific Island Array, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.12, issue.11, pp.1206-1227, 1982.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(1982)012<1206:EWVMOI>2.0.CO;2

L. L. Fu, A. Et, and . Cazenave, Satellite altimetry and Earth sciences, A Handbook of techniques and applications, International Geophysics Series, vol.69, 2001.

C. Fu and H. F. Diaz, Characteristics of the Response of Sea Surface Temperature in the Central Pacific Associated with Warm Episodes of the Southern Oscillation, Monthly Weather Review, vol.114, issue.9, p.1716, 1986.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1986)114<1716:COTROS>2.0.CO;2

J. S. Godfrey, E. J. Et, and . Lindstrom, The heat budget of the equatorial western Pacific surface mixed layer, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.24, issue.1, pp.8007-8017, 1989.
DOI : 10.1029/JC094iC06p08007

W. M. Gray, Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Frequency. Part I: El Ni??o and 30 mb Quasi-Biennial Oscillation Influences, Monthly Weather Review, vol.112, issue.9, pp.1649-1668, 1984.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<1649:ASHFPI>2.0.CO;2

E. Guilyardi, El Ni??o???mean state???seasonal cycle interactions in a multi-model ensemble, Climate Dynamics, vol.115, issue.4, pp.329-348, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00382-005-0084-6

E. C. Hackert, A. J. Busalacchi, and E. R. Murtugudde, A wind comparison study using an ocean general circulation model for the 1997-1998 El Ni??o, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.155, issue.C2, pp.2345-2362, 2001.
DOI : 10.1029/1999JC000055

T. Hasegawa, K. Et, and . Hanawa, Heat Content Variability Related to ENSO Events in the Pacific, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.33, issue.2, pp.407-421, 2003.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<0407:HCVRTE>2.0.CO;2

T. Hasegawa, T. Horii, and E. K. Hanawa, Two different features of discharge of equatorial upper ocean heat content related to El Ni??o events, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.25, issue.C3, pp.10-1029, 2006.
DOI : 10.1029/2005GL024832

H. Henin, Y. Du-penhoat, and E. M. Ioualalen, Observations of sea surface salinity in the western Pacific fresh pool: Large-scale changes in 1992-1995, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.8, issue.2, pp.7523-7536, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/97JC01773

C. Hénin, J. Et, and . Grelet, A merchant ships thermo-salinograph network in the Pacific Ocean, Deep-Sea Res, pp.1833-1855, 1996.

M. P. Hoerling, A. Et, and . Kumar, The Perfect Ocean for Drought, Science, vol.299, issue.5607, pp.691-699, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1079053

C. L. Holland, G. T. Et, and . Mitchum, Interannual volume variability in the tropical Pacific, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.95, issue.C10, pp.10-1029, 2003.
DOI : 10.1029/2003JC001835

H. Y. Inoue, M. M. Ishii, H. Matsueda, M. Ahoyama, and E. I. Asanuma, ) in the central and western equatorial Pacific, west of 160??W, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.45, issue.14, pp.1781-1784, 1996.
DOI : 10.1029/96GL01674

A. Ishida, Y. Kashino, S. Hosoda, and E. K. Ando, North-south asymmetry of warm water volume transport related with El Ni??o variability, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.19, issue.C7, pp.10-1029, 2008.
DOI : 10.1029/2008GL034858

F. F. Jin, An Equatorial Ocean Recharge Paradigm for ENSO. Part I: Conceptual Model, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.54, issue.7, pp.811-829, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<0811:AEORPF>2.0.CO;2

A. B. Kara, P. A. Rochford, and H. E. Hurlburt, An optimal definition for ocean mixed layer depth, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.25, issue.C7, pp.16803-16821, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JC900072

W. S. Kessler, Is ENSO a cycle or a series of events?, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.105, issue.C3, pp.212510-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/2002GL015924

B. P. Kirtman, J. Shukla, J. Balmaseda, N. Graham, C. Penland et al., Current Status of ENSO Forecast Skill: A Report to the CLIVAR Working Group on Seasonal to Interannual Prediction, ICPO Publ. Ser, vol.56, 2001.

J. Kug, I. Kang, and S. An, Symmetric and anti-symmetric mass exchanges between the equatorial and off-equatorial Pacific associated with ENSO, J. Geophy. Res. Oceans, vol.108, issue.3284, pp.10-1029, 2003.

Y. Kuroda, M. J. Et, and . Mcphaden, Variability in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean during Japanese Pacific climate study cruises in 1989 and 1990, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.93, issue.suppl., pp.4747-4759, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/92JC02684

K. M. Lau, H. T. Wu, and S. Bony, The Role of Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation in the Relationship between Tropical Convection and Sea Surface Temperature, Journal of Climate, vol.10, issue.3, pp.381-392, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<0381:TROLSA>2.0.CO;2

L. Borgne, R. Et-rodier, and M. , Net zooplankton and the biological pump: a comparison between the oligotrophic and the mesotrophic equatorial Pacific, Deep-Sea Res II, pp.2003-2023, 1997.

S. Levitus, R. Burgett, and E. T. Boyer, World Ocean Atlas, Temperature, NOAA Atlas NESDIS U.S. Dept. of Commerce, vol.3, issue.99, p.pp, 1994.

M. J. Lighthill, Dynamic Response of the Indian Ocean to Onset of the Southwest Monsoon, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol.265, issue.1159, pp.45-92, 1969.
DOI : 10.1098/rsta.1969.0040

E. Lindstrom, R. Lukas, R. Fine, E. Firing, J. S. Godfrey et al., The Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Circulation Study, Nature, vol.330, issue.6148, pp.330-533, 1987.
DOI : 10.1038/330533a0

K. Lorbacher, D. Dommenget, P. Niiler, and E. A. Köhl, Ocean mixed layer depth: A subsurface proxy of ocean-atmosphere variability, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.14, issue.2, p.7010, 2006.
DOI : 10.1029/2003JC002157

R. Lukas, E. Et, and . Lindstrom, The mixed layer of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.90, issue.S01, pp.3343-3357, 1991.
DOI : 10.1029/90JC01951

C. Maes, D. Et, and . Behringer, Using satellite-derived sea level and temperature profiles for determining the salinity variability: A new approach, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.16, issue.C4, pp.8537-8548, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/1999JC900279

C. Maes, J. Picaut, and E. S. Belamari, Salinity barrier layer and onset of El Ni??o in a Pacific coupled model, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.277, issue.24, pp.220610-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/2002GL016029

C. Maes, J. Picaut, Y. Kuroda, and E. K. Ando, Characteristics of the convergence zone at the eastern edge of the Pacific warm pool, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.78, issue.C7, pp.10-1029, 2004.
DOI : 10.1029/2002JC001611

C. Maes, J. Picaut, and E. S. Belamari, Importance of the Salinity Barrier Layer for the Buildup of El Ni??o, Journal of Climate, vol.18, issue.1, pp.104-118, 2005.
DOI : 10.1175/JCLI-3214.1

C. Maes, K. Ando, T. Delcroix, W. S. Kessler, M. J. Mcphaden et al., Observed correlation of surface salinity, temperature and barrier layer at the eastern edge of the western Pacific warm pool, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.20, issue.24, p.660110, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2005GL024772

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00280367

C. Maes, On the ocean salinity stratification observed at the eastern edge of the equatorial Pacific warm pool, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.25, issue.C12, pp.10-1029, 2008.
DOI : 10.1029/2007JC004297

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00280381

T. Matsuno, Quasi-geostrophic motions in the equatorial area, J. Met. Soc. Japan, vol.44, issue.1, pp.25-42, 1966.

J. M. Mcdougall, D. R. Jackett, D. G. Wright, and R. Feistel, Accurate and Computationally Efficient Algorithms for Potential Temperature and Density of Seawater, Journal of Atmos and oceanic technology, 2003.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0426(2003)20<730:AACEAF>2.0.CO;2

M. J. Mcphaden, The tropical atmosphere ocean array is completed, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc, vol.76, pp.739-741, 1995.

M. J. Mcphaden, A. J. Busalacchi, R. Cheney, J. Donguy, K. S. Gage et al., The Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere observing system: A decade of progress, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.10, issue.44, pp.14169-14240, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/97JC02906

M. J. Mcphaden, X. Zhang, H. H. Hendon, and M. C. Wheeler, Large scale dynamics and MJO forcing of ENSO variability, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.15, issue.9, pp.1670210-1029, 2006.
DOI : 10.1029/2006GL026786

C. S. Meinen, Meridional Extent and Interannual Variability of the Pacific Ocean Tropical???Subtropical Warm Water Exchange, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.35, issue.3, pp.323-335, 2005.
DOI : 10.1175/JPO-2694.1

C. S. Meinen, M. J. Et, and . Mcphaden, Observations of Warm Water Volume Changes in the Equatorial Pacific and Their Relationship to El Ni??o and La Ni??a, Journal of Climate, vol.13, issue.20, pp.3551-3559, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<3551:OOWWVC>2.0.CO;2

C. S. Meinen, M. J. Et, and . Mcphaden, Interannual Variability in Warm Water Volume Transports in the Equatorial Pacific during 1993???99*, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.31, issue.5, pp.1324-1345, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<1324:IVIWWV>2.0.CO;2

G. Meyers, On the Annual Rossby Wave in the Tropical North Pacific Ocean, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.9, issue.4, pp.663-674, 1979.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(1979)009<0663:OTARWI>2.0.CO;2

J. Mignot, C. De-boyer-montegut, A. Lazar, and E. S. Cravatte, Control of salinity on the mixed layer depth in the world ocean: 2. Tropical areas, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.29, issue.5, pp.10-1029, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JC003954

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00282575

D. W. Moore, Planetary-gravity waves in an equatorial ocean, 1968.

D. W. Moore, S. G. Et, and . Philander, Modeling of the tropical oceanic circulation, The Sea, Eds, vol.6, pp.319-361, 1977.

T. N. Palmer, D. A. Et, and . Mansfield, Response of two atmospheric general circulation models to sea-surface temperature anomalies in the tropical East and West Pacific, Nature, vol.17, issue.5977, pp.310-483, 1984.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1983)040<1363:BWPAIA>2.0.CO;2

S. G. Philander and A. Et-fedorov, ?, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol.31, issue.1, pp.579-594, 2003.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.earth.31.100901.141255

J. Picaut, F. Masia, and Y. Dupenhoat, An Advective-Reflective Conceptual Model for the Oscillatory Nature of the ENSO, Science, vol.277, issue.5326, pp.663-666, 1997.
DOI : 10.1126/science.277.5326.663

J. Picaut, M. Ioualalen, C. Menkes, T. Delcroix, and M. J. Mcphaden, Mechanism of the Zonal Displacements of the Pacific Warm Pool: Implications for ENSO, Mechanism of the zonal displacements of the Pacific warm pool:Implications for ENSO, pp.1486-1489, 1996.
DOI : 10.1126/science.274.5292.1486

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00772206

J. Picaut, E. Hackert, A. J. Busalacchi, R. Murtugudde, and G. S. Lagerloef, Mechanisms of the 1997???1998 El Ni??o???La Ni??a, as inferred from space-based observations, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.26, issue.C5, p.10, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2001JC000850

J. Picaut, M. Ioualalen, T. Delcroix, F. Masia, R. Murtugudde et al., The oceanic zone of convergence on the eastern edge of the Pacific warm pool: A synthesis of results and implications for El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation and biogeochemical phenomena, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.115, issue.C2, pp.2363-2386, 2001.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JC900141

J. Picaut, R. Et, and . Tournier, Monitoring the 1979-1985 equatorial Pacific current transports with expendable bathythermograph data, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.211, issue.S01, pp.3263-3277, 1991.
DOI : 10.1029/90JC02066

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77: The Art of Scientific Computing, Sec. 10.5, 1992.

M. Radenac, C. Menkes, J. Vialard, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau et al., Modeled and observed impacts of the 1997-1998 El Ni??o on nitrate and new production in the equatorial Pacific, Modeled and observed impacts of the 1997? 1998 El Niño on nitrate and new production in the equatorial Pacific, pp.26879-26898, 2001.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JC000546

J. P. Rébert, J. R. Donguy, G. Eldin, and E. K. Wyrtki, Relations between sea level, thermocline depth, heat content, and dynamic height in the tropical Pacific Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.12, issue.C4, pp.719-11725, 1985.
DOI : 10.1029/JC090iC06p11719

G. C. Reverdin, C. Frankignoul, E. Kestenare, and M. J. Mcphaden, Seasonal variability in the surface currents of the equatorial Pacific, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.90, issue.5, pp.323-20344, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/94JC01477

R. W. Reynolds, T. M. Et, and . Smith, Improved Global Sea Surface Temperature Analyses Using Optimum Interpolation, Journal of Climate, vol.7, issue.6, pp.929-948, 1994.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<0929:IGSSTA>2.0.CO;2

M. Rodier, G. Eldin, and R. L. Borgne, The western boundary of the equatorial Pacific upwelling: Some consequences of climatic variability on hydrological and planktonic properties, Journal of Oceanography, vol.56, issue.4, pp.463-471, 2000.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1011136608053

D. Roemmich, M. Morris, W. R. Young, and J. R. Donguy, Fresh Equatorial Jets, Fresh equatorial jets, pp.540-558, 1994.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(1994)024<0540:FEJ>2.0.CO;2

D. Roemmich, W. B. Et, and . Owens, The Argo Project: Global Ocean Observations for Understanding and Prediction of Climate Variability, Oceanography, vol.13, issue.2, pp.45-50, 2000.
DOI : 10.5670/oceanog.2000.33

L. M. Rothstein, A Model of the Equatorial Sea Surface Temperature Field and Associated Circulation Dynamics, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.14, issue.12, p.pp, 1983.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(1984)014<1875:AMOTES>2.0.CO;2

N. Schneider, P. Et, and . Muller, The Meridional and Seasonal Structures of the Mixed-Layer Depth and its Diurnal Amplitude Observed during the Hawaii-to-Tahiti Shuttle Experiment, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.20, issue.9, pp.1395-1404, 1990.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(1990)020<1395:TMASSO>2.0.CO;2

A. Soloviev, R. Et, and . Lukas, Observation of large diurnal warming events in the nearsurface layer of the western Pacific warm pool, Deep-Sea Res, pp.1055-1076, 1997.

K. Sponberg, Navigating the numbers of climatological impact Compendium of Climatological Impacts, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, vol.1, issue.13, 1999.

J. Sprintall, M. J. Et, and . Mcphaden, Surface layer variations observed in multiyear time series measurements from the western equatorial Pacific, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.73, issue.9, pp.963-979, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/93JC02809

J. Sprintall, M. Et, and . Tomczak, Evidence of the barrier layer in the surface layer of the tropics, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.75, issue.1, pp.7305-7316, 1992.
DOI : 10.1029/92JC00407

A. Stoens, C. Menkes, M. Radenac, N. Grima, Y. Dandonneau et al., The coupled physical-new production system in the equatorial Pacific during the 1992-1995 El Ni??o, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol.7, issue.C2, pp.3323-3339, 1999.
DOI : 10.1029/98JC02713

M. J. Suarez, P. S. Et, and . Schopf, A Delayed Action Oscillator for ENSO, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.45, issue.21, pp.3283-3287, 1988.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<3283:ADAOFE>2.0.CO;2

J. Vialard, P. Et, and . Delecluse, An OGCM Study for the TOGA Decade. Part I: Role of Salinity in the Physics of the Western Pacific Fresh Pool, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.28, issue.6, pp.1071-1088, 1998.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(1998)028<1071:AOSFTT>2.0.CO;2

J. Vialard, P. Et, and . Delecluse, An OGCM Study for the TOGA Decade. Part II: Barrier-Layer Formation and Variability, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.28, issue.6, pp.1089-1106, 1998.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(1998)028<1089:AOSFTT>2.0.CO;2

B. Wang, Interdecadal Changes in El Ni??o Onset in the Last Four Decades, Journal of Climate, vol.8, issue.2, pp.267-285, 1995.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<0267:ICIENO>2.0.CO;2

C. Wang, A Unified Oscillator Model for the El Ni??o???Southern Oscillation, Journal of Climate, vol.14, issue.1, pp.98-115, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0098:AUOMFT>2.0.CO;2

C. Wang, J. Et, and . Picaut, Understanding ENSO physics?a review, in Earth's climate: the ocean-atmosphere interaction, pp.21-48, 2004.

C. Wang and R. H. Weisberg, The 1997???98 El Ni??o Evolution Relative to Previous El Ni??o Events, Journal of Climate, vol.13, issue.2, pp.488-501, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<0488:TENOER>2.0.CO;2

P. J. Webster, R. Et, and . Lukas, TOGA COARE: The Coupled Ocean???Atmosphere Response Experiment, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.73, issue.9, pp.1377-1416, 1992.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(1992)073<1377:TCTCOR>2.0.CO;2

R. H. Weisberg, C. Z. Et, and . Wang, A Western Pacific Oscillator Paradigm for the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.115, issue.7, pp.779-782, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/97GL00689

K. Wyrtki, El Ni??o???The Dynamic Response of the Equatorial Pacific Oceanto Atmospheric Forcing, Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol.5, issue.4, pp.572-584, 1975.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0485(1975)005<0572:ENTDRO>2.0.CO;2

K. Wyrtki, Water displacements in the Pacific and the genesis of El Nino cycles, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.72, issue.C4, pp.90-7129, 1985.
DOI : 10.1029/JC090iC04p07129

A. Xie, Global Precipitation: A 17-Year Monthly Analysis Based on Gauge Observations, Satellite Estimates, and Numerical Model Outputs, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.78, issue.11, pp.2539-2558, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2539:GPAYMA>2.0.CO;2

J. Xu, J. C. Et, and . Chan, The Role of the Asian???Australian Monsoon System in the Onset Time of El Ni??o Events, Journal of Climate, vol.14, issue.3, pp.418-433, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0418:TROTAA>2.0.CO;2