Etudes écologique et microbiologique des espèces du genre Costularia (Cyperaceae) pionnières des sols ultramafiques de Nouvelle-Calédonie : applications à la restauration écologique..

Abstract : In New Caledonia, soils developed on ultramafic rocks (5.500 km2) are constituted of more than 65 % iron oxi-hydroxide. They present very low contents in nitrogen and phosphor (only 1/10 to 1/100 of average contents); besides their Ca / Mg ratio is unbalanced and they contain very high heavy metals concentrations (nickel, manganese, cobalt, chromium). Nowadays the nickel open mines which exploit such soils must consider both economic interests and ecological preoccupations, as these soils are associated to particularly original and diversified ecosystems. Within these, several endemic pioneer plant species have been identified. Among them, some Costularia (Cyperaceae) are recommended in revegetation programmes of mining sites, after their exploitation. Ecological restoration requires a multidisciplinary approach integrating soil sciences, physiological and microbiological data of ultramafic scrubland ecosystems. Analysis of soils / plant's relations along a topo-sequence, including various types of scrubland, clearly shows there is a direct relationship between the concentrations of soil available elements and the variety and organization of the vegetation, in particular for the herbaceous stratum. This work, coupled with the creation of an experimental Cyperaceae seed orchard, in association with SIRAS Pacifique Company, indicates that the growth of Costularia comosa answers positively the nitrogenous and phosphated fertilization. The experiment also underlines the fact that vigour, growth speed, rate of mycorhization and fruiting of plants are stimulated by moderate doses of these elements. Other assays enabled to improve our knowledge of the role of the microorganisms associated to Costularia roots. Thus, we shows that nine pioneer species of Cyperaceae, studied in situ, develop arbuscular mycorhizal symbioses. An experiment of controlled mycorhization on Costularia comosa shows that mycorhization by Glomus etunicatum is functional, with an increase of the plants' biomass of 2,8 times compared to the control. Furthermore, such a mycorhization of C. comosa reduces the nickel concentration in the plant, suggesting the mycorhize acts as a barrier towards nickel. In this study, we also present a description of the aerobic, heterotrophic and nickel resistant bacterial populations isolated from roots of two Costularia species associated to ultramafic scrublands. The density of these bacterial populations is low and Protéobactéria dominate. Some of the isolated strains present a tolerance to 15 mM of soluble nickel and the capacity to solubilize phosphates. The progresses in both our knowledge of Cyperaceae mineral nutrition and the role of associated microorganisms brought by this study, allow to envisage the implementation of productive seed orchards and the use of the microorganisms associated to Costularia, in the technical routes for optimised ecological restoration plans.
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Alexandre Lagrange. Etudes écologique et microbiologique des espèces du genre Costularia (Cyperaceae) pionnières des sols ultramafiques de Nouvelle-Calédonie : applications à la restauration écologique... Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Nouvelle Calédonie, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00444167⟩

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