I. See, C. Singer, and . Roche, Recherches sur la prosopographie du royaume d'Ougarit138, 391 I refer here to the letters from individuals bearing the title {DUMU LUGAL}, "king's son': RS 15.077, RS 17, 1983.

O. Gurney, The Sultan Tepe Tablets VII: The Myth of Nergal and Ereshkigal 105-131; see now the bibliography accompanying S. Dalley's translation in Context, Anatolian Studies, vol.10, issue.1, pp.384-389, 1960.

N. Gruber and M. Communication, 153, cite one passage: En¨ma Elish, tablet 3, lines 68-70. For bibliographical references, see E. Speiser's treatment in 60-72; and, more recently, the references given by B. Foster in Context 1 (1997) 390-402. 311 A standard edition is W. Lambert and A. Millard, Atra- " as?s: the Babylonian Story of the Flood (Oxford: Clarendon, 1969); more recent bibliographical references are given by B. Foster in Context 1 (1997) 450-453 cite two passages; Meier 's reference is, the Ancient Semitic World) 315, and Meier, Messenger in the Ancient Semitic World, pp.122-126, 1969.

N. Bible and F. B. Knutson, Compare also Is 44:23, where the vocative phrase isO Forest, and O every tree in it!' 344 Compare the discussion of ""der Gruss des täglichen Lebens'' in the Babylonian world by B. Landsberger in MAOG 4 (1928-1929) 298-302 contains references to other non-epistolary Mesopotamian examples of ßulmu-greetings on p. 251, among which the Neo- Assyrian tablet VAT 8807 is also discussed. On the latter, see the edition by W. G. Lambert in Babylonian Wisdom Literature (1960) 216-217 and pl. 55-57: the ßulmu-motifs occur on the verso of VAT 8807, col. 3, lines 20 and 45. In speaking of a similar salutation formula used in the Hebrew is able to suggest that the formula ""was originally oral''. For himIt was a greeting, exchanged when two men met, Alk Compare Landsberger, MAOG, vol.17, issue.2, pp.345-300, 1928.

E. Salonen, D. Gruss-und-höflichkeitsformeln, E. Recently, . Cancik-kirschbaum, and . Die-mittelassyrischen-briefe, fiulmu-Wünsche als Teil der Briefeinleitung haben Tradition seit der aB Zeit und finden sich in den unterschliedlichsten Varianten, sowohl knapp als auch ausführlich60); as many as thirty-four from Amarna, 42.1, and EA 49); and over thirty from Bo?azköy (ABoT 59+, pp.14-15, 1967.

«. The-four and . Ben, Among these, at least three distinct compositional patterns are attested: (3) « [?lm] + [l ßlm] + [N R ] + [fiLM] », attested once, in RS 92, RS 16.265.1, and possibly also in RS 1.018; 43 and (5) « [?lm] + [fiLM] + [N R ] + [ ? ] + [TMM?] », apparently attested once RS 92, p.44, 2005.

. Ph, F. Houwink-ten-cate, and . Römer, 100 (probably), KUB 48.88.2, Mélanges Laroche 3.1, and VS 28.129. 267 I refer in particular to « fiU. ?I.A-uß ara " zanda aßßuli " ark-», "to hold (one's) hands (around s.o.) favorably', known in at least three letters: Mélanges Laroche 3, 265 For the value of {TI} here, compare Hagenbuchner, Die Korrespondenz der Hethiter HKM 71.2, HKM 73.2, HKM 82.2, HKM 95 269 My guess is that the Ugaritic common noun " (y), "life', provides the best approximation of the core semantics of Akkadian bul ?u, as "life' in the sense of existence, pp.8-11, 1989.

. Akk, bul ?u can have other senses, including that of "health' (that is, a qualitative state, as opposed to "unhealth', another qualitative state), for which Ug

-. Ga-ia}, A. Bio, {. Dùg, T. Ga-ia}, and . Hor, 2; and one conceptually ascending letter which contains both models (thus ASC MIXED): HKM 81.1; as well as the following ""miscellaneous'' ascending letters: Mélanges Laroche 3.2, which contains what is obviously a conceptually ascending REL term, {MA ?-RI-IA}, conceivably derived from the biological kinship modelmy elder (kinsman)' (?); HKM 27.3, which contains ASC POW terminology as well as the term {MA ?-RI-IA} (thus ASC MIXED); and, finally, three conceptually ascending letter which incorporate not only the term {MA ?-RI-IA}, but also typical ascending REL terms from both the BIO and POW models (thus, also ASC MIXED): HKM 29.2, HKM 36.2, and HKM 52.2. One other letter containing the « ben » formula, HKM 60.2, is also conceptually mixed, being addressed to two recipients, one termed {A Provisional total: eighteen letters which incorporate conceptually ASC terminology contain the « ben » formula, HKM 71.2, HKM 73.2, HKM 81.2, HKM 82.2, and HKM 95.2. Several other letters, which are technically conceptually unknown, may have belonged here as well: KBo 18.046 is not surprising in light of the fact that these are international letters, which followed a tradition in which the « ben » was not standard (see below for the Amarna letters, and the similar situation represented by the important Egypt- ?atti correspondence from Bo?azköy)

B. Arnaud, Syria 59 (1982) 212-213 (copy and transcription); idem, Emar, vol.6, issue.376, 1987.

«. Dingir, MEfi an-nu-tu 4 li-i¬-¬ú-ru-ku-nu » 418 "May these (same) gods 419 protect you

. Mittanni, KBo 1 (1916) 8; the edition in E. F. Weidner, BoSt 8 (1923) 34; as well as the recent treatment, with anterior bibliography Hittite Diplomatic Texts (1996) 37 and 172. The same motif occurs in numerous other examples, p.180, 1974.

«. Hebrew, 469 Such a suggestion necessarily entails interpreting the sign {y} in the phrase ?ly °grt not as a consonantal phoneme, but rather as a mater lectionis, representing an underlying vowel. 470 Proposals for the quality 471 of this 469 Compare, for example, the Hebraicized vocalization proposed by(1015:4) ily (5) ugrt = 'ilê 'ugarita "the gods of Ugarit'.'' 470 S. Loewenstamm was apparently the first to draw this inference for the form in question, S. Loewenstamm, IEJ favor of the existence of matres lectionis in Ugaritic which deal with this form include Gordon, p.18, 1958.

J. Blau, S. E. Loewenstamm, M. Dietrich, and O. Loretz, 459- 460; and, most recently, Tropperwhere the author also allows the possibility that {y} is consonantal, representing an enclitic particle, on which see below) For further bibliography, see D. Pardee, Les textes épistolaires (in preparation), ch. 18 (RS 15.008), commentaire, ligne 4. 471 Since the form in question is almost certainly plural (or, in any case, not singular), it is generally agreed that the quantity of the case vowel should be long. the use of ""enclitic particles'' in Ugaritic morphology. Since the evidence for the existence of an enclitic particle -y, attached not only to nouns, but also to verbs, pronouns, and adverbs, is fairly strong, 477 it seems reasonable, and methodologically sound, to interpret the writing ?ly °grt in this vein: */?il¨-ya 478 ?ugar?ta/. 479 It seems to me that a strong argument for this view is to be found in the literary text KTU 1.23, ""l'affirmation que la forme ?ly constitue un élément du « Spätugaritisch » [he refers here to Tropper 391] capable de prouver que la langue tardive avait perdu le système casuel (comme nous l'avons plusieurs fois signalé, presque tous les textes ougaritiques sont « tardifs, The early champion of this view was K. Aartun, Die Partikeln des Ugaritischen, pp.51-53, 1970.

A. Pardee and D. Pardee, Ugaritic data that I know of. The polyvalent nature of the {PI} sign (in the writing {AL-LI-NI-PI} in RS 20426B:5') prevents it from being much use, in my opinion, for any reconstruction of the Ugaritic phonemic structure, contra Tropper 479 Tropper offers this explanation as (he also considers the mater lectionis explanation as possible, however: ibid., § 54.121.2) Pardee, Les textes épistolaires (in preparation), ch. 18 (RS 15.008), commentaire, ligne 4, is more decided in favor of the enclitic particle il nous paraît nécessaire de privilégier le connu par rapport à l'inconnu : on frôle l'arbitraire en affirmant que la forme ?ly (avec ymy en RS 24.247:34' si l'on adopte cette interprétation de la forme) est suffisante pour faire croire que le système casuel était tombé d'usage en ougaritique alors qu'une particule -y existe dont la fonction précise est inconnue et qui peut donc servir pour expliquer la forme ?ly 474-475, for not having classified the phrase ?ly °grt as an example of enclitic -y: "". . . dans son étude de la particule -y [he refers here to Tropper 473-482] il fait le partage entre matres lectionis et la particule -y sans déclarer sur quels critères les décisions se font (ce qui serait difficile vu que la fonction de la particule est inconnue) Ce que les spécialistes qui choisissent l'analyse comme mater lectionis dans ce cas et dans plusieurs autres n'ont pas remarqué est que cet usage orthographique se réduirait en ougaritique en grande partie au signe {y}, qui a fournit la plupart d'exemples cités (peu d'exemples de {?}, encore moins de {w}, presque tous les exemples cités pour {h} reflètent soit la particule locative/adverbiale soit la forme ?ßrh du nom de nombre « dix ») Or il est évidemment possible que l, 151. 478 I vocalize the particle as Pardee, ibid., n. 18, criticizes Tropper) ; mais il est également possible, et à notre avis plus conforme aux données de la langue qui sont bien attestées, que l'une des caractéristiques les plus frappantes de l'ougaritique, à savoir l'usage très répandu de particules enclitiques, soit à l'origine des orthographes en question (et que les deux cas cités de {h} constituent des morphèmes comportant la consonne, pp.833-835, 1984.

I. H. 486-herdner, . Ginsberg, H. L. Kitv´ugaritkitv´ugarit, and . Ginsberg, Orientalia 5 (1936) 188; and U. Cassuto Harris, Development of the Canaanite Dialects (1939) 12, n. 27, notes this phenomenon as well, and cites H The early discussion was prejudiced by the predominance in the known corpus of literary texts in parallelistic poetic narrative style. 488 It was generally admitted that taqtul¨(na) forms existed in these myths, 489 but they were assumed to coexist in free variation alongside ""expected'' yaqtul¨(na) forms. 490 D. Dobrusin attempted to explain away all the yaqtul¨(na) examples in the poetic corpus as amenable to alternative explanations, 491 but J. Tropper's more cautious position, 492 that taqtul¨(na) is statistically standard, but a few yaqtul¨(na) forms do exist in the poetic texts, which may be viewed as a ""morphologisches Fossil'', analogous to the taprus pattern for the 3rd f. sg. preterite in Akkadian literary compositions, is equally plausible. Unlike the situation in the literary texts, however, where taqtul¨(na) appears to be standard and a few yaqtul¨(na) examples are often thought to exist, the situation in Ugaritic prose is fairly straightforward: as Tropper has recently shown, 493 all 488 Because of this, all but one of the examples discussed by Herdner are taken from poetic narrative; the single prose form is mentioned on p, Ces formes ne se rencontrent pas seulement dans les textes poétiques. M. Dhorme a bien voulu me signaler, dans une lettre provenante de Ras- Shamra [the letter in question must be RS 8.315], dont la publication est très prochaine : t©rk, « qu'ils te gardent » ; tßlmk, « qu'ils te maintiennent en bonne santé » ; le sujet est 'ilm, « les dieux ».'' 489 Since fairly clear examples of taqtul¨(na) for the 3rd m pl are now generally admitted from Mari (Old Babylonian), from Amarna (Late Bronze), and perhaps also from Ras Shamra syllabic texts, pp.76-107, 1933.

. Rainey, for the putative RS syllabic examples § 73.223.31, p. 432), it is no longer necessary to speculate that the formally ambiguous Ugaritic tqtl forms represent 3rd f. sg. forms used for plural entities, as in Arabic where all non-human plurals are treated grammatically as f. sg. 490 Compare Herdner, Revue des Études Sémitiques, ? les formes tq ?l(n) qui ont été expliquées jusqu'ici comme des 3e m. pl. sont peu nombreuses ? .'' 491 Dobrusin, pp.26-28, 1938.

A. F. 508-compare and . Rainey, The epistolary style was strongly influenced by the standard forms in Akkadian'' (apparently as an example of astandard Akkadian epistolary form'', he cites a typical prostration formula from an Amarna letter) More recentlymost of the prosaic texts are formulaic and are in fact imitations of Akkadian legal epistolary [sic] describes the Ugaritic epistolary « pros » formula as an, Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 3Übersetzung eines akk. Formulars''. 509 Tropper, pp.869-881, 1968.

B. Pardee, . Margalit, T. Matter-idem, and . Ii, 23-26 ; Cunchillos, Misterio [1983] 72 ; idem, AEPHER 92, pp.230-264, 1977.

». Bio, This formal variant adds a third predication, derived from the verb TMM, p.521

«. Compositionally-non-standard and . Ben, 1 The « ben » formula in RS 17.117 RS 17, « b?l yß°l ßlmk » « ASC MIXED » "May Ba?lu seek your well-being!' 520 D. Clemens, Sources, p.2179, 2001.

T. and A. ßulmªni, Now, (as for) the fact that your servant is going to come to you 99 for (the purpose of) the ""well-being (gift)'', 100 now then, (for that) he shall indeed have a " pn- 99 The verb M Y "to come, arrive' often takes ?m as a complement in the epistolary corpus; compare RS 16078+:8; RS 18.566:6'; RS 34356:4; and probably RS 88.2159:16. 100 In the formulaic motif of reciprocal well-being, Ugaritic ßlm is used where the parallel formula in Ras Shamra Akkadian letters has ßulmªnu, both with the abstract meaning "well-being'. Also in Ras Shamra Akkadian letters, the sense of ßulmªnu may be concrete, "well-being (gift),' apparently even in texts of local composition, such as RS 17 where a list of luxury items (including garments, { túg GAD}) is characterized as {ßul-ma-ni MÍ.LUGAL-ti}. Compare also RS 34, Furthermore, k(y) clauses are used not only to topicalize events or situations in the past, but also those in the future: RS 29 also concerning garmentsas the ßulmªnu-gift' (cf. l ßlm in the Ugaritic text here); and RS 34, pp.25-29109

O. Conjunctive, . Presentational, and . Elements, None of these particles is a necessary element This is clear from a survey of formulaic motifs in which the presence of such elements varies. The conjunction w, for example, occasionally marks the transition from topic to comment in the formulaic request for information regarding well-being: RS 11 « ®mny ?m °my mnm ßlm w rgm ®®b ly », "(As for the situation) there with my mother, (concerning) whatever well-being (there is), have word (of that) returned to me, pp.11-13

. Since, and since that interpretation is applicable here, there is at present no reason to postulate the existence another word written p. RS 16078+:17-19 « mlk r[b b?l]y p l " y np[ßh ±]rß l pn b?[l] ¬pn ? », "(As for) the gre[at] king my [master], [I] am (continually) making [re]quests for the life of

. Finally, element: RS 942406:38 « w d? k y¬±[t] ±p mlktNow, know that even the queen has departed!' ht One of the most heavily used presentational particles in Ugaritic epistolary discourse is ht. Etymologically, it is likely related to the many other Ugaritic deictic particles composed from the particle base *han-. 153 It is attested over twenty times, in nearly twenty different letters. Functionally, ht occasionally marks the transition from « topic » to « comment » within this information structure: RS 16, « w mlk b?ly ht lm ßkn ? l ?bdh ±lpm ¢¢wm, pp.22-24

O. Kaiser and «. S. , die Frage nach seinem Wohlergehen und die Bitte um Auskunft.'' In her dissertation, S. Ahl, Epistolary Texts (1973), refers to « S.R. » as theReport of the Well-Being of the Sender) and to « I.R. » as aRequest for Information about Well-being of Recipient, pp.84-88, 1970.

A. Kristensen, «. S. , «. S. , and «. I. , ces expressions conventionelles de politesse'' in Ugaritic letters; compare also col ? une autre formule conventionelle venant en supplément, par laquelle l'expéditeur fait part au destinataire de sa bonne santé « ici, chez nous » et souhaite que « là bas », chez son correspondant, tout aille bienstructure dialogique'' of these two motifs (p. 257), describes « S.R. » as a motif in which ""l'expéditeur donne des nouvelles de son environment'' (p. 258), and « I.R. » as ""l'expression d'un souhait de la part de l'expéditeur « que tout aille bien auprès de N » ? (p. 259).'' The author's treatment in HUS (1999) 365-366, presents similar views. D. Pardee refers to the sequence « S.R. I.R. » as ""la double formule d'état de bien être des correspondants'' in Studi Fronzaroli (forthcoming), and in the manuscript to his Les textes épistolaires (in preparation), ch. 8 (RS 8.315), remarques épistolographiques: the individual components, are called, respectivelyle rapport sur l'état de l'expéditeur'' and ""la demande de retour de nouvelles sur l'état du destinataire In terms of function 165 and form, 166 the « S.R. » and « I.R. » motifs align easily with other Ugaritic messages, but not with the polite formulas. (4) In one letter, a non-formulaic assertive message, namely « w ±p ±nk n " tNow, (as for) me, I have gotten some rest) on a theoretical level, it is best to consider « S.R. I.R. » as part of the body purely in terms of the informational content contained therein. 168 D. Pardee has treated this double motif in some detail in his recent contribution to a volume honoring P. Fronzaroli. 169 Since it serves little purpose simply to repeat here the data, history of discussion, and analysis provided there, this section will concentrate on those aspects of the double formula either not mentioned by Pardee or which continue to pose problems of interpretation. Owing to the formulaic nature of 165 « S.R. » is an assertive message, and « I.R. » directive; see above. 166 Both « S.R. » and « I.R. » bear the information structure « topic : comment »; moreover the form of the topicalizing motifs is entirely consistent with that of other messages; see above, and note in particular the formal (and functional) similarity between the stereotyped topicalizing element « ®mn(y) ?mk » in « I.R. » and the similar element « ®mt ?mnk » in a non-formulaic directive message: RS 29Now, (as for) your two servants, there, with you, ? give (some) grain to them!' Compare also RS 17, is inserted within an otherwise standard version of the double motif « S.R. I.R. ». 167 Finally where the double motif « S.R. I.R. » is preceded by a topicalizing element commonly used to introduce comments regarding anterior correspondence within the body of the letter: « l " t X », "(As for) the tablet regarding (the subject of) X, (which you sent me) ? .' 167 Pardee, pp.153-15620, 1413.

«. S. Richards, Gruber provides further references to general informational theory That the motifs were not devoid of informational content is clear from those letters which contain only these motifs in the body section (Pardee, Studi Fronzaroli [forthcoming]): RS 9.479A, RS 19.102.2, RS 20.199. Judging from the RS 17.139:5, such ""lettres de politesse'' were referred to with the phrase « l " t ßlm », "(epistolary) tablet about well-being.' 169 Pardee, Studi Fronzaroli (forthcoming), made available to me by the author, along with the text of his lectureAn Epistolary Formula in Ugaritic and Akkadian Letters from Ras Shamra My access to these studies is gratefully acknowledged here. the double motif, the organization of this section will follow, Society of Biblical Literature Annual Meeting, p.170, 1972.

«. I. The-opposite-case and «. S. , When an information request has to do with another subject discussed in the body, other than ßlm "well-being', it may naturally occur without an associated « S.R. »: compare RS 4 RS [Varia 4]:6-19, and probably RS 94.2457:17'-23'. 171 Twenty-six Ugaritic letters certainly or probably contain at least one component of the double motif. Of these, the immediate context of six (RS 1721A) is too poorly preserved to permit analysis. This leaves twenty letters, of which seventeen contain the double motif « S.R. I.R. »: RS 8.315, RS 11, and RS 19.102.2 « I.R. ». 172 As mentioned above in section 5.3.1, in the example of the double motif in RS 8Now, (as for) me, I have gotten some rest, RS 9 RS 18434+, RS 18.287, RS 18.[312], RS 18.[400], RS 18.[482], and RIH 77 was inserted between otherwise standard versions of the « S.R » and « I.R. » components. 173 Given the marked tendency observable elsewhere in the composition of Ugaritic epistolary formulas to distinguish formally conceptually « ASC » letters from those which are not « ASC », this compositional rigidity is singular. On the analogy of the compositional structure of the address and salutation formulas, for example, one might have expected the double motif of reciprocal well-being to show the structure « I.R. S.R. » in letters which are conceptually ascending, but « S.R. I.R. » in those which are not (and especially in those which are contextually descending); but such is not the case, pp.12-1520

«. Both, ». , and «. Comment, 178 These are formed from the *han-particle base and refer to the locality of the sender. 179 These two 174 This element must be entirely reconstructed in RS 1621A, but, for reasons of space as well as form, its presence is not generally doubted. 175 In RS 94.2479:5-6, this slot is represented by the prepositional phrase « b bt mlk », "in the royal palace,' topicalizing a location rather than a person. 176 « N S » is a pronoun, noun, or noun phrase434+:2-3, this prepositional phrase refers to another member of the sender's entourage as well as the sender herself: « [?m] ßp[ß (mlk rb)] w ?m mlkt(the great king) ? ] and with the queen'. 178 Nineteen of the twenty-one attestations of the « S.R. » motif contain this component (or traces of it); it is explicitly absent from only two formulas: RS 15 Such a distinction, sensitive to the personal / impersonal nature of the governed noun phrase, finds a parallel in English usage, where the idiom ""to be well'' (for example) would be complemented by ""with'' or ""for'' in references to persons with whom or for whom, One of the most common optional components in the « topic RS 17.434+, RS 92.2005.2, and RIH 77 RS 17 RS 94, pp.5-6

{. Lugal-gal-ßa, K. Gn, and . >}, Given this pattern, the preposition ?m was probably present, though now needs to be entirely restored, in five other cases: RS 16 RS 15.008, probably RS 16.379, RS 17, and probably RIH 77/21A. A comparable structure was probably present, though now needs to be entirely restored, in three other cases: RS 18.[400], RS 20.199, and RS 94.5003+. 192 The legible portion of the sender's name in RS 17434+:1 is pd÷b mlkPudu " epa, the quee[n]' ? perhaps to be restored, with E. Lipi?ski, OLP (1981) 81, n. 9, as {pd÷b . mlk[t . rbt . ml]¯kt?Pudu " epa, the [great] quee[n, queen of ?atti],' but note the pattern observed in the cuneiform letters addressed to Pudu " epa from various members of the royal court of Egypt which should perhaps incite a recollation of this line with the restoration {pd÷b, RS 18.[400], RS 20.199, RS 94.5003+, and RIH 77/21A. 191 RS 8.315, RS 11 By using the term ""entourage'', I do not intend subservience of any sort on the member of the entourage in question, who in this case is ßp[ß (mlk rb)], "the Su[n (the great king)]'. 193 Studi Fronzaroli (forthcoming), p.¯wt?, 2005.

. Again, nonstandard'' « I.R. » in the noun phrase « ßlmh ? w ßlm bth ? », "his (that is "of my master') wellbeing ? a the well-being of his house ? .' Owing to the presence of mnm in RS 94.2479:8, one may suppose a scribal omission. The absence of the phrase from RS 29.095 is problematic, however: this is the only conceptually UNMARKED letter to contain the motif of reciprocal well-being, and it would not be inappropriate in such a case to employ a terse, less deferential version of the formula, such as we have here, p.768, 2010.

. Finally, (vii) the seventh component, the conjunction w, often marks the transition from topic to comment; 210 it is also optional, p.211

«. S. When and «. S. , double motif almost always 218 occurs following the polite formulas section, and preceding the non-formulaic part of the body. 219 This RS 18.287 (probably « I.R. », partially reconstructed) , RS 18, RS 18.[400] (possible traces of « S.R. I.R. », largely reconstructed), RS 18.[482] (probably « [?]+I.R. »), RS 19

«. S. 5003+-«-s, «. S. Probably, +. S. , ?. I. , R. S. et al., 5003+ (partially reconstructed) Its presence is possible, but needs to be reconstructed RS 4.475 (the ""information request'' here is not formulaic, and not explicitly about ßlm), RS 15.007, RS 15158 (probably), RS 15174 (probably), RS 16078+ (probably), RS 16.264, RS 16.265, RS 16.402, RS 17.063 (the ""situation report'' here is nonstandard ) and RS 17situation report'' non-standard), RS 18.040, RS 18.075 (probably), RS 18.113 (probably), RS 18.134 (probably), RS 18.140.2 (probably), RS 18, RS 15.008, RS 16 RS 94.2479, and RS 94 RS 18.[400] (possible traces of and RS 18.[482] (probably « [?]+I.R. »). 216 RS 3.334 (probably), RS 3.427 (probably) which the « S.R. I.R. » motif follows a series of non-formulaic messages, is an exception. 219 In RS 20.199, the motif « S.R. I.R. » constitutes the entire body, and thus ends the letter (RS 8.315 is comparable, with the exception of the non-formulaic assertive message appended to the « S.R. » in lines 13-14). Such letters, entirely concerned as they were with ßlm, "well-being', were apparently referred to as l " t ßlm, "well-being letter(s)' (RS 17, p.21, 2005.

«. S. Motif, «. Hor, «. S. , and «. S. Motif, 225 Another letter which contains explicitly « DESC BIO » terminology is RS [Varia 4], which explicitly omits the motif of reciprocal well-being. This letter is conceptually mixed, however, also is not necessarily connected with the presence of DESC BIO terminology. 226 The « DESC POW » category is also apparently (the reading of the REL term in line 2 is not clear) represented by a single example: RS 19.181A. The state of preservation prevents a determination of the presence of the double motif It is explicitly absent from RS 15 230 Only one letter is concerned here: RS 16.265.1, which explicitly omits the « S.R. I.R. » motif. 231 In RS 15.007, a letter which is ""non-standard'' in many respects, the sender employs the REL term r?, "colleague,' apparently belonging to the poorly attested « HOR POW » conceptual inventory, to refer to his correspondent. The « S.R. I.R. » motif is explicitly absent. 232 The presence of the motif cannot be determined in eight instances: RS 15, 224 RS 19.102.1 is the text concerned. The distribution observed above and the space available on the tablet make it virtually certain that lines 10-12 contained the RS 17.063 (the statistically standard RS 20.199, RS 92.2010, and RS 94.2479. idiom appearing frequently in the Ras Shamra epistolary corpus. 241 D. Pardee has now conveniently catalogued the published examples, pp.191-242

U. P. Parker and . Texts, A similar formal identification was made a few years later by O. Kaiser in ZDPV 86 (1970) 19-20, but the grammatical analysis and translation given there for both the Akkadian and Ugaritic idioms can no longer be accepted (see below, section 5, 1967.

S. 242-pardee, S. R. Fronzaroli, «. I. , «. S. , and R. , To these a likely twenty-first occurrence should be added: RS 13 PRU 3 [1955] 6), which should probably be read as {(4) e-nu-ma it-ti LUGAL ! (5) ßul-mu [aß]-ra-nu (6) [ ? it-ti]-ka (7) [ ? ]}. None of the letters published in RSO 14 (2002) contains the double motif. 243 Ibid. 244 These derive from six tablets recovered in excavations (one of these tablets, Msk 7497, contains two examples of the motif); and two acquired on the antiquities market. A probable tenth example may be reconstructed in Msk, The Emar corpus also contains several examples of the « I.R. » motif used alone, a situation which finds formal parallels in the Ugaritic letters RS 9.479A and RS 19, pp.4-7, 1951.

D. Arnaud, 183 (copy); idem, Emar, vol.6, issue.6 260, pp.3-256, 1985.

7. Msk, it-ti (12) m lu ! -da ! -ti (13) mi-nu-me (14) ßul, pp.11-15

A. «. Finally, «. I. Ma-?ar-dumu, . Sal, and . Gal, 256 Letters composed by scribes in the Hittite realm show that formal equivalents of both were in productive used as separate epistolary motifs Their joint use as a double motif « S.R. I.R. », however, is surprisingly rare. I have found only three examples, all in Hittite, 257 and all appearing on scribal ""piggy-back'' letters. These are cited here: KBo 18.001.2: verso 6' -left edge 3 « | (6') ka-a-ßa MA- ?AR d UTU-fiI, Hagenbuchner described the formally equivalent motifs in Hittite letters in her 1989 monograph

N. J. 278-see, U. Tropper, G. Grammatik, J. Del-olmo, S. Sanmartín-pardee et al., 279 On Syro-Akkadian {mi-nu(-um)-me(-e) ßul-ma-nu}, see the analysis proposed by G. Swaim in his 1962 Brandeis dissertation, Grammar of the Akkadian Tablets Found at Ugarit, 22-23 (for further bibliography, see del Olmo and J. Sanmartín On the Hittite string {aß-ßu-ul ku-it}, see Hagenbuchner, hlny hnn b bt mlk kll ßlm ®mny ?m ±dty mnm 284 w rgm t®®b ?m ?bdh » RS 18.[312]:4'-5' « [?] ?m¯n? 285 ßl, 1989.

«. In, . Hor, and . Bio, Letter, The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol.109, issue.5, pp.29-33, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-5223(95)70337-3

«. In and . Bio-»-letters, 147:6-8 « hnny ?mn ßlm ®mny ?[m] bny mnm [ß]lm rgm ®®b [ly] » In conceptually « UNMARKED » letters: RS 29.095:5-8 « hnny ?mn ß[l]m ®mny ?mk rgm ®®b ly » In letters of unknown conceptual classification: RS 19.158B:2'-6' « [hln]y hnn ?mn ßlm ®mn ?mk mnm ßlm [r]gm ®®b l[y] » 284 Probably reconstruct « mnm <ßlm> »; and explain the scribal error as a result of haplography

S. R. In, «. Unmarked-», «. Contextually, and . Descending-»-letters, 038:3-4 « ?m ßpß kll m?dm ßlm » RIH 77/21A:4-9 « hlny [?m ßpß mlk] rb k[ll ßlm ?] d m¯-?, p.287

I. R. In and «. Pow, 479A:12-15 « ?m ±dty mnm ßlm rgm t®®b l ?bdh » RS 19, pp.20-24