Modélisation et simulation des microclimats urbains - Étude de l'impact de l'aménagement urbain sur les consommations énergétiques des bâtiments

Abstract : Architects, urban designers and building engineers are more and more sollicited to develop design methods that reduce the environnemental impact of urbanization. Many studies show that climatic phenomena such as urban heat island are both the causes and the consequences of the energy demand increase at the whole urban scale. Furthermore, energetic expertise of the buidings is allowed by operational tools that presently do not properly take into account the climatic conditions at a small spatial scale, although their effects have been demonstrated. Usually neglected, the direct or indirect impact of the urban planning is however an intersting way for passive thermal control. To study these phenomena, we propose in this work to use a microclimatic simulation tool, relying on the coupling of a thermoradiative model and a CFD computation tool. In a first part, we develop a soil model and a inner building thermal model, this last one allowing to compute the energy consumption of a building interacting with its urban environment. They are both integrated into the thermoradiative (Solene), then the coupling procedure with the CFD tool (Fluent) is adapted accordingly. In the second part, we analyse the behaviour of a reference building, located in an isolated site and described by a set of variable parameters, and we establish classes of energy consumption using a statistical method for multicriteria sensitivity analysis. Finally, we use these building classes in a real urban site, the Lyon Confluence project, to analyse the impact of two planning fixtures : a mineralized one and a vegetated one. This last part points out two main results, the significant difference between energy consumption simulated from the real microclimatic context and obtained from the theoretical case, and, the potential energy saving between two design strategies for a same project.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 27, 2009 - 5:44:41 PM
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Julien Bouyer. Modélisation et simulation des microclimats urbains - Étude de l'impact de l'aménagement urbain sur les consommations énergétiques des bâtiments. Energie électrique. Université de Nantes, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00426508⟩

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