. Dans-ce-cas, AEW est étiré vers le Nord par un flux de Sud-est renforcé, empêchant la circulation cyclonique de s'organiser correctement, et bloquant son évolution cyclogénétique. Le renforcement de la dorsale de l'AEW en moyenne troposphère est lié à un renforcement de la circulation anticyclonique au dessus du WAHL (l'Anticyclone Saharien en moyenne troposphère), éventuellement en relation avec un thalweg en provenance des moyennes latitudes et s

A. Redelsperger and . Tompkins, Radiosonde humidity bias correction over the West African region for the special AMMA reanalysis at ECMWF, Quart, J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, vol.135, pp.595-617, 2009.

J. Arnault and F. Roux, Case Study of a Developing African Easterly Wave during NAMMA: An Energetic Point of View, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.66, issue.10, 2009.
DOI : 10.1175/2009JAS3009.1

L. A. Avila and G. B. Clark, Atlantic Tropical Systems of 1988, Monthly Weather Review, vol.117, issue.10, pp.2260-2265, 1988.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<2260:ATSO>2.0.CO;2

L. B. Aviles, African easterly waves: evolution and relationship to Atlantic tropical cyclones Atmospheric Sciences, 2004.

P. R. Bannon, Theoretical Foundations for Models of Moist Convection, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.59, issue.12, pp.1967-1982, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<1967:TFFMOM>2.0.CO;2

P. Bechtold, J. S. Kain, E. Bazile, P. Mascart, and E. Richard, A mass-flux convection scheme for regional and global models, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.43, issue.573, pp.869-886, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712757309

?. , M. Kohler, T. Jung, F. Doblas-reyes, M. Leutbecher et al., Advances in simulating atmospheric variability with the ECMWF model: From synoptic to decadal time-scales, Q, J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, vol.134, pp.1337-1351, 2008.

G. Berry and C. Thorncroft, Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave, Monthly Weather Review, vol.133, issue.4, pp.752-766, 2005.
DOI : 10.1175/MWR2884.1

?. , ?. , and T. Hewson, African easterly waves during 2004 ? analysis using objective techniques, Wea. Rev, vol.135, pp.1251-1267, 2006.

M. Bister and K. A. Emanuel, The Genesis of Hurricane Guillermo: TEXMEX Analyses and a Modeling Study, Monthly Weather Review, vol.125, issue.10, pp.2662-2682, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<2662:TGOHGT>2.0.CO;2

P. Bougeault and P. Lacarrère, Parameterization of Orography-Induced Turbulence in a Mesobeta--Scale Model, Monthly Weather Review, vol.117, issue.8, pp.1872-1890, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<1872:POOITI>2.0.CO;2

O. Bousquet and M. Chong, The oceanic mesoscale convective system and associated mesovortex observed 12 December 1992 during TOGA-COARE, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.120, issue.562, pp.189-211, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712656210

E. A. Brandes, Evolution and Structure of the 6???7 May 1985 Mesoscale Convective System and Associated Vortex, Monthly Weather Review, vol.118, issue.1, pp.109-127, 1985.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<0109:EASOTM>2.0.CO;2

?. and C. L. Ziegler, Mesoscale downdraft influences on vertical vorticity in a mature mesoscale convective system, Mon. Wea. Rev, vol.121, pp.1337-1352, 1993.

R. W. Burpee, The Origin and Structure of Easterly Waves in the Lower Troposphere of North Africa, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.29, issue.1, pp.77-90, 1972.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<0077:TOASOE>2.0.CO;2

DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1969)097<0256:SHOTAD>2.3.CO;2

?. and J. M. Prospero, The large-scale movement of Saharan air outbreaks over the northern equatorial Atlantic, J. Appl. Meteor, vol.11, pp.283-297, 1972.

J. Chaboureau and P. Bechtold, Statistical representation of clouds in a regional model and the impact on the diurnal cycle of convection during Tropical Convection, Cirrus and Nitrogen Oxides (TROCCINOX), Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.129, issue.D17, pp.10-1029, 2005.
DOI : 10.1029/2004JD005645

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00068822

?. , J. Cammas, P. Mascart, J. Pinty, C. Claud et al., Evaluation of a cloud life-cycle simulated by Meso-NH during FASTEX using METEOSAT radiances and TOVS-31 cloud retrievals, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, vol.126, pp.1735-1750, 2000.

?. , ?. ???, ?. , and J. Lafore, Mesoscale model cloud scheme assessment using satellite observations, J. Geophys. Res, vol.107, issue.4301, pp.10-1029714, 2002.

S. S. Chen and W. M. Frank, A Numerical Study of the Genesis of Extratropical Convective Mesovortices. Part I: Evolution and Dynamics, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.50, issue.15, pp.2401-2426, 1993.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<2401:ANSOTG>2.0.CO;2

M. Chong and O. Bousquet, A Mesovortex within a Near-Equatorial Mesoscale Convective System during TOGA COARE, Monthly Weather Review, vol.127, issue.6, pp.1145-1156, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<1145:AMWANE>2.0.CO;2

A. Dai and J. Wang, Diurnal and Semidiurnal Tides in Global Surface Pressure Fields, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.56, issue.22, pp.3874-3891, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<3874:DASTIG>2.0.CO;2

C. A. Davis and S. B. Trier, Mesoscale Convective Vortices Observed during BAMEX. Part I: Kinematic and Thermodynamic Structure, Monthly Weather Review, vol.135, issue.6, pp.2029-2049, 2007.
DOI : 10.1175/MWR3398.1

G. E. Dunn, Cyclogenesis in the tropical Atlantic, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, vol.21, pp.215-229, 1940.

D. R. Durran, Improving the Anelastic Approximation, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.46, issue.11, pp.1453-1461, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<1453:ITAA>2.0.CO;2

K. A. Emanuel, An Air-Sea Interaction Theory for Tropical Cyclones. Part I: Steady-State Maintenance, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.43, issue.6, pp.485-604, 1986.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<0585:AASITF>2.0.CO;2

C. Erickson, AN INCIPIENT HURRICANE NEAR THE WEST AFRICAN COAST, Monthly Weather Review, vol.91, issue.2, pp.61-68, 1963.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1963)091<0061:AIHNTW>2.3.CO;2

J. M. Fritsch, J. D. Murphy, and J. S. Kain, Warm Core Vortex Amplification over Land, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.51, issue.13, pp.1780-1807, 1994.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<1780:WCVAOL>2.0.CO;2

T. Gal-chen and R. C. Sommerville, On the use of a coordinate transformation for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.17, issue.2, pp.209-228, 1975.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9991(75)90037-6

W. Gray and M. , GLOBAL VIEW OF THE ORIGIN OF TROPICAL DISTURBANCES AND STORMS, Monthly Weather Review, vol.96, issue.10, pp.669-700, 1968.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1968)096<0669:GVOTOO>2.0.CO;2

D. Gregory, J. Morcrette, C. Jakob, A. M. Beljaars, and T. Stockdale, Revision of convection, radiation and cloud schemes in the ECMWF integrated forecasting system, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.52, issue.566, pp.1685-1710, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712656607

J. J. Hack and W. H. Schubert, Nonlinear Response of Atmospheric Vortices to Heating by Organized Cumulus Convection, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.43, issue.15, pp.1559-1573, 1986.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<1559:NROAVT>2.0.CO;2

P. Harr, R. L. Elsberry, and J. C. Chan, Transformation of a Large Monsoon Depression to a Tropical Storm during TCM-93, Monthly Weather Review, vol.124, issue.12, pp.2625-2643, 1996.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<2625:TOALMD>2.0.CO;2

E. A. Hendricks, M. T. Montgomery, and C. A. Davis, The Role of ???Vortical??? Hot Towers in the Formation of Tropical Cyclone Diana (1984), Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.61, issue.11, pp.1209-1232, 2004.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<1209:TROVHT>2.0.CO;2

G. Holland and J. , Scale interaction in the Western Pacific Monsoon, Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol.105, issue.1-2, pp.57-79, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01022521

B. J. Hoskins, I. Draghici, and H. C. Davies, A new look at the <I>??</I>-equation, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.104, issue.439, pp.31-38, 1978.
DOI : 10.1256/smsqj.43902

R. A. Houze and . Jr, Cloud dynamics, 573 pages, Academic, 1993.

J. Hsieh and K. H. Cook, A Study of the Energetics of African Easterly Waves Using a Regional Climate Model, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.64, issue.2, pp.421-440, 2007.
DOI : 10.1175/JAS3851.1

H. Hubert, Origine africaine d'un cyclone tropical Atlantique, Annales de la physique du globe de la France d'Outremer, pp.97-115, 1939.

G. S. Jenkins, A. S. Pratt, and A. Heymsfield, Possible linkages between Saharan dust and tropical cyclone rain band invigoration in the eastern Atlantic during NAMMA-06, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.34, issue.12, pp.10-1029, 2008.
DOI : 10.1029/2008GL034072

?. , P. Kucera, E. Joseph, J. Fuentes, A. Gaye et al., Coastal observations of weather features in Senegal during the AMMA SOP-3 period, J. Atmos. Sci., submitted Kain, J. S., and J. M. Fritsch, vol.46, pp.165-170, 1993.

V. M. Karyampudi and T. N. Carlson, Analysis and Numerical Simulations of the Saharan Air Layer and Its Effect on Easterly Wave Disturbances, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.45, issue.21, pp.3102-3136, 1988.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<3102:AANSOT>2.0.CO;2

T. D. Keenan and S. A. Rutledge, Mesoscale Characteristics of Monsoonal Convection and Associated Stratiform Precipitation, Monthly Weather Review, vol.121, issue.2, pp.352-374, 1993.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1993)121<0352:MCOMCA>2.0.CO;2

G. N. Kiladis, C. D. Thorncroft, and N. M. Hall, Three-Dimensional Structure and Dynamics of African Easterly Waves. Part I: Observations, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.63, issue.9, pp.2212-2230, 2006.
DOI : 10.1175/JAS3741.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00389149

J. C. Kniegel and R. H. Johnson, A scale-discriminating vorticity budget for a mesoscale vortex in a midlatitude, continental mesoscale convective system, J. Atmos. Sci, vol.60, pp.781-794, 2003.

J. P. Lafore, J. Stein, N. Asencio, P. Bougeault, V. Ducrocq et al., The Meso-NH Atmospheric Simulation System. Part I: adiabatic formulation and control simulations, Annales Geophysicae, vol.16, issue.1, pp.90-109, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s00585-997-0090-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00329074

A. G. Laing, R. Carbone, V. Levizzani, and J. Tuttle, The propagation and diurnal cycles of deep convection in northern tropical Africa, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.129, issue.189, pp.93-109, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.194

C. W. Landsea and W. M. Gray, The Strong Association between Western Sahelian Monsoon Rainfall and Intense Atlantic Hurricanes, Journal of Climate, vol.5, issue.5, pp.435-453, 1992.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1992)005<0435:TSABWS>2.0.CO;2

R. A. Pielke, R. A. Sr, and . Pielke, Climate variability of tropical cyclones: Past, Present and Future. Storms, ???, pp.220-241, 2000.

C. Lavaysse, C. Flamant, S. Janicot, and P. Knippertz, Impact of the mid-latitude circulation on the intra seasonal pulsations of the West African Heat Low -A Spectral Analysis, 2009.

T. Lebel, B. Marticorena, E. Mougin, C. Peugeot, A. Diedhiou et al., The AMMA field campaigns: multiscale and multidisciplinary observations in the West African region, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.132, issue.s1, 2009.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.486

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00605940

C. S. Lee, Observational Analysis of Tropical Cyclogenesis in the Western North Pacific. Part I: Structural Evolution of Cloud Clusters, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.46, issue.16, pp.2580-2598, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<2580:OAOTCI>2.0.CO;2

Y. Lin, K. E. Robertson, and C. M. Hill, Origin and Propagation of a Disturbance Associated with an African Easterly Wave as a Precursor of Hurricane Alberto (2000), Monthly Weather Review, vol.133, issue.11, pp.3276-3298, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/MWR3035.1

E. N. Lorenz, Available potential energy and the maintenance of the general circulation, pp.157-167, 1955.

G. Love, Cross-Equatorial Interactions during Tropical Cyclogenesis, Monthly Weather Review, vol.113, issue.9, pp.1499-1509
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1985)113<1499:CEIDTC>2.0.CO;2

P. Marquet, Exergy in meteorology: Definition and properties of moist available enthalpy, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.29, issue.511, pp.567-590, 1993.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49711951112

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/meteo-00572667

V. Mathon and H. Laurent, Life cycle of Sahelian mesoscale convective cloud systems, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.19, issue.14, pp.377-406, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712757208

J. L. Mcbride, Observational Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Formation. Part III: Budget Analysis, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.38, issue.6, pp.1152-1166, 1981.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<1152:OAOTCF>2.0.CO;2

?. , J. L. , and R. Zehr, Observational analysis of tropical cyclone formation, Part II: Comparison of non-developing versus developing systems, J. Atmos. Sci, vol.38, pp.1152-1166, 1981.

R. D. Menard and J. M. Fritsch, A Mesoscale Convective Complex-Generated Inertially Stable Warm Core Vortex, Monthly Weather Review, vol.117, issue.6, pp.1237-1261, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<1237:AMCCGI>2.0.CO;2

M. Moine, Structure et evolution à mésoéchelle de perturbations cycloniques de l'Atlantique Nord pendant FASTEX, Thèse de l'Université Paul Sabatier ? Toulouse III, 2001.

J. Molinari and S. Skubis, Evolution of the Surface Wind Field in an Intensifying Tropical Cyclone, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.42, issue.24, pp.2865-2879, 1985.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<2865:EOTSWF>2.0.CO;2

?. and M. Dudek, Parameterization of convective precipitation in mesoscale models: A critical view, Wea. Rev, vol.120, pp.326-344, 1992.

D. C. Norquist, E. E. Recker, and R. J. Reed, The Energetics of African Wave Disturbances as observed During Phase III of GATE, Monthly Weather Review, vol.105, issue.3, pp.334-342, 1977.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1977)105<0334:TEOAWD>2.0.CO;2

K. Ooyama, Conceptual evolution of the theory and modelling of the tropical cyclone, Meteor. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.187-198, 1982.

D. Paradis, J. Lafore, and J. Redelsberger, African Easterly Waves and Convection. Part I: Linear Simulations, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.52, issue.10, pp.1657-1679, 1995.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<1657:AEWACP>2.0.CO;2

S. W. Payne and M. M. Mcgarry, The Relationship of Satellite Inferred Convective Activity to Easterly Waves Over West Africa and the Adjacent Ocean During Phase III of GATE, Monthly Weather Review, vol.105, issue.4, pp.414-420, 1977.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1977)105<0413:TROSIC>2.0.CO;2

W. Piersig, Schwankungen von Luftdrück und Luftbewegung; sowie ein Beitrag zum Wettergeschehen im Passatgebiet des östlichen Nordatlantischen Ozeans, Aus dem Archiv der Deutschen Seewarte., 54. (Parts II and III have been translated and published in 1944 under the title: The cyclonic disturbances of the sub-tropical Eastern North Atlantic, pp.2-17, 1936.

J. P. Pinty and P. Jabouille, A mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in mesoscale nonhydrostatic model: simulations of a squall line and of orographic precipitations, Conf. on cloud physics, pp.217-220, 1998.

I. Pytharoulis and C. Thorncroft, The Low-Level Structure of African Easterly Waves in 1995, Monthly Weather Review, vol.127, issue.10, pp.2266-2280, 1998.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<2266:TLLSOA>2.0.CO;2

D. J. Raymond, C. Lopez-carillo, and L. L. Cavazos, Case-studies of developing east Pacific easterly waves, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.48, issue.550, pp.2005-2034, 1998.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712455011

P. D. Reasor, M. T. Montgomery, and L. Bosart, Mesoscale Observations of the Genesis of Hurricane Dolly (1996), Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.62, issue.9, pp.3151-3171, 1996.
DOI : 10.1175/JAS3540.1

J. Redelsperger, C. D. Thorncroft, A. Diedhiou, T. Lebel, D. Parker et al., African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis: An International Research Project and Field Campaign, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.87, issue.12, pp.1739-1746, 2006.
DOI : 10.1175/BAMS-87-12-1739

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00385875

R. J. Reed, D. C. Norquist, and E. E. Recker, The Structure and Properties of African Wave Disturbances as Observed During Phase III of GATE, Monthly Weather Review, vol.105, issue.3, pp.317-333, 1977.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1977)105<0317:TSAPOA>2.0.CO;2

H. Riehl, A Model of Hurricane Formation, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.21, issue.9, pp.917-925, 1950.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1699784

E. A. Ritchie and G. J. Holland, Scale Interactions during the Formation of Typhoon Irving, Monthly Weather Review, vol.125, issue.7, pp.1377-1396, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<1377:SIDTFO>2.0.CO;2

R. F. Rogers and J. M. Fritsch, Surface Cyclogenesis from Convectively Driven Amplification of Midlevel Mesoscale Convective Vortices, Monthly Weather Review, vol.129, issue.4, pp.605-637, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<0605:SCFCDA>2.0.CO;2

R. S. Ross and T. N. Krishnamurti, Low-Level African Easterly Wave Activity and Its Relation to Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis in 2001, Monthly Weather Review, vol.135, issue.12, pp.3950-3964, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/2007MWR1996.1

S. M. Sall and H. Sauvageot, Cyclogenesis off the African Coast: The Case of Cindy in August 1999, Monthly Weather Review, vol.133, issue.9, pp.2803-2813, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/MWR3003.1

?. , ?. , A. Gaye, A. Viltard, and P. De-félice, A cyclogenesis index for Tropical Atlantic off the African Coasts, Atmos. Res, vol.79, pp.123-147, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00561043

R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, P. Brunel, S. English, P. Bauer et al., RTTOV-8 Science and validation report, NWP SAF Rep, p.41, 2005.

D. J. Schove, A further contribution to the meteorology of nigeria, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.71, issue.311, pp.105-110
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49707231110

W. H. Schubert and J. J. Hack, Inertial Stability and Tropical Cyclone Development, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.39, issue.8, pp.1687-1697, 1982.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1982)039<1687:ISATCD>2.0.CO;2

J. Schwendike and S. C. Jones, Convection in an African easterly wave over West Africa and the eastern Atlantic: case study of Helene, 2006.

J. Simpson, E. Ritchie, G. J. Holland, J. Halverson, and S. Stewart, Mesoscale Interactions in Tropical Cyclone Genesis, Monthly Weather Review, vol.125, issue.10, pp.2643-2661, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<2643:MIITCG>2.0.CO;2

J. W. Smith and P. R. Bannon, A Comparison of Compressible and Anelastic Models of Deep Dry Convection, Monthly Weather Review, vol.136, issue.12, pp.4555-4571, 2008.
DOI : 10.1175/2008MWR2343.1

P. J. Smith, A Note on Energy Conversions in Open Atmospheric Systems, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.27, issue.3, pp.518-521, 1970.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1970)027<0518:ANOECI>2.0.CO;2

R. M. Thompson, S. W. Payne, E. E. Recker, and R. J. Reed, Structure and Properties of Synoptic-Scale Wave Disturbances in the Intertropical Convergence Zone of the Eastern Atlantic, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.36, issue.1, pp.53-72, 1979.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1979)036<0053:SAPOSS>2.0.CO;2

C. D. Thorncroft, An idealized study of African easterly waves. III: More realistic basic states, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.120, issue.527, pp.1589-1614, 1995.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712152706

?. and K. Hodges, African easterly wave variability and its relationship to Atlantic tropical cyclone activity, J. Climate, vol.14, pp.1166-1179, 2001.

E. I. Tollerud and S. K. Esbensen, A Composite Life Cycle of Nonsquall Mesoscale Convective Systems over the Tropical Ocean. Part I: Kinematic Fields, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.42, issue.8, pp.823-837, 1985.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<0823:ACLCON>2.0.CO;2

K. J. Tory, M. T. Montgomery, and N. E. Davidson, Prediction and Diagnosis of Tropical Cyclone Formation in an NWP System. Part I: The Critical Role of Vortex Enhancement in Deep Convection, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.63, issue.12, pp.3077-3090, 2006.
DOI : 10.1175/JAS3764.1

S. B. Trier, W. C. Skamarock, and M. A. Lemone, Structure and Evolution of the 22 February 1993 TOGA COARE Squall Line: Organization Mechanisms Inferred from Numerical Simulation, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.54, issue.3, pp.645-670, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<0386:SAEOTF>2.0.CO;2

V. Sang, N. , R. K. Smith, and M. T. Montgomery, Tropical-cyclone intensification and predictability in three dimensions, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.106, issue.632, pp.563-582, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.235

J. Verlinde and W. R. Cotton, A Mesoscale Vortex Couplet Observed in the Trailing Anvil of a Multicellular Convective Complex, Monthly Weather Review, vol.118, issue.5, pp.993-1010, 1990.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<0993:AMVCOI>2.0.CO;2

M. L. Weisman and C. A. Davis, Mechanisms for the Generation of Mesoscale Vortices within Quasi-Linear Convective Systems, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.55, issue.16, pp.2603-2622, 1998.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<2603:MFTGOM>2.0.CO;2

. Anderson, The Saharan air layer and the fate of African easterly waves. NASA's AMMA 2006 field program to study tropical cyclogenesis: NAMMA, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc, vol.90, pp.1137-1156, 2009.