Abstract : This PhD attempted to answer three principal problems. The first is a historiographic investigation into the bocage, the medieval habitat and plots and the landscapes of Vendée in order to identify the dead ends and the possible ways of restoration of the scientific speeches. The second is a archaeogeographic analysis of the planimetric forms (the roadway network, the plots, the habitat in network), on several scales of space and time, contained in a window of 800 km² in Southern Vendée (85). The aim was to understand their organization, their installation and their transmission on a scale of long time and according to the paradigm of the dynamic and the complexity of the processes. Lastly, the third research consisted of a reflexion on the bonds between various knowledge on the plots pattern, the roadway network, the settlement since Protohistoire until our days in order to propose a track of renewal of the traditional geohistoric account.