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Insécurités. Une interprétation environnementale de la violence au Ouaddaï (Tchad oriental)

Abstract : How far do neo-malthusian theories on environmental conflicts apply to the east of Chad ?
Food shortages there are a regular occurrence but can't be entirely explained by demographic and environmental factors. It's the socio-political context which provokes the violence. From 2003, the war in Darfur has led to an important number of refugees whose presence has increased the pressure on resources. Emergency international aid feeds tensions while the many development projects fail to bring the region out of a state of insecurity which is related to politics rather than food.
The relationship with the central power is a decisive factor. Formerly the centre, Wadai has become a marginalised Far East in the state that was created by colonisation. The region is suffering from the absence of both development and administration. The Sudanese border encourages escape and insubordination. Cradle of the regime, eastern Chad is the territory where the rebellions that threaten the latter, brew. The seizure of both power and the recently exploited oil resources by the rulers has again led to the appearance of an armed opposition that is victim of its constant schisms and recompositions. The conflicts that erupted between communities in 2006, and the deployment of a UN/EU protection force in 2008, must be interpreted in this context.
Violence is deeply-rooted in the region. The pre-colonial empire of Wadai, with a monarchy by divine right, gave a unified identity to a population threatened by colonisation. After independance, the region was at the heart of a thirty years war which finally broke down relations between the communities.
Refuge is found in belonging to the Arab-Muslim world. It can be seen in a refusal of development along lines imported from the West, and in a rejection of lay education. In a state of crisis, Chad's state schools cannot solve the cultural conflict : they are both the battleground and catalyst of social violence.
In Chad the management of resources and the management of penury also contribute to violence. To establish peace there must be social, economic and political justice. Nations are forged by such struggles and by adopting a common history.
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Submitted on : Thursday, July 23, 2009 - 11:42:23 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00406684, version 1


Johanne Favre. Insécurités. Une interprétation environnementale de la violence au Ouaddaï (Tchad oriental). Géographie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨tel-00406684⟩



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