Abstract : With the interdependence of the international relations, safety is now synergic : the political, economic, social and environmental fields are all inter connected. Consequently, the tangle between interior security and external security, and the henceforth protean character of the threats require a revaluation of the security issues and imply varied answers. So for Europe, “the equation of safety” makes the Mediterranean area from now on a “priority zone of strategic importance”. The European Union is forced at the same time to reconsider itself, to reconsider its borders and consequently to reconsider the relationship with the “South”, including the Maghreb with whom it has historic relationship. To summarize, there are three issues at stake in the Maghreb for the Union. Within the framework of the redefining of its periphery, the Maghreb area becomes the space of rebalancing of Europe towards the South correlative to its widening in the East. It's even the place of predilection for the implementation of its foreign policy and common safety. In this process of the construction of a Euro-Maghreb bloc, Europe crosses the Mediterranean policy of the United States. The adoption of the declaration of Barcelona in 1995, marks the advent of an overall policy between residents of the Mediterranean area. Consequently, the importance of this zone for the European Union and the will to play an important part there hasn't ceased growing. Since then, other provisions have been envisaged, such as the revival of the process of Barcelona ant the European policy of vicinity. The attempts to resuscitate the talks has proved ineffective. However, the policy of vicinity supposes a detailed attention insofar as it envisages devices, which in the long term, are likely to shake the spirit of the political dialogue in “bilatéralisant” the relations between the European Union and the Mediterranean partners, replacing the initiative partenarial by a hegemonic tendency. The various systems of co-operation set up on two banks of the Mediterranean area are essential to the maintenance of peace and stability. Imperfect, but perfectible, they must seek to satisfy the interests of each one, that's to say a need for safety in the North and a need for prosperity in the South.