. Brochard, Energies of the atomic steps formed on low-index surfaces of fcc metals, Philosophical Magazine Letters, vol.77, issue.3, pp.125-134, 1998.
DOI : 10.1080/095008398178552

. Brochard, Dislocation nucleation from surface steps: Atomistic simulation in aluminium, Philosophical Magazine A, vol.146, issue.3, pp.503-524, 2000.
DOI : 10.1063/1.361527

. Brochard, Stress concentration near a surface step and shear localization, Physical Review B, vol.61, issue.13, pp.8707-8713, 2000.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.61.8707

. Buehler, The dynamical complexity of work-hardening: a large-scale molecular dynamics simulation, Acta Mechanica Sinica, vol.21, issue.2, pp.103-111, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s10409-005-0019-9

O. Carrasco, M. A. Rodriguez-de-la-fuente, J. M. Gonzales, and . Rojo, Characterising and controlling surface defects, The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, vol.418, issue.4, pp.421-426, 2004.
DOI : 10.1140/epjb/e2004-00231-9

M. Chen, E. Ma, K. J. Hemker, H. Sheng, Y. Wang et al., Deformation Twinning in Nanocrystalline Aluminum, Science, vol.300, issue.5623, pp.1275-1277, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1083727

. Cleri, Atomic-Scale Mechanism of Crack-Tip Plasticity: Dislocation Nucleation and Crack-Tip Shielding, Physical Review Letters, vol.79, issue.7, pp.1309-1312, 1997.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.1309

C. Gaillard, E. J. Tromas, and . Woirgard, Pop-in phenomenon in MgO and LiF: Observation of dislocation structures, Philosophical Magazine Letters, vol.13, issue.9, pp.553-561, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-6454(00)00378-5

A. S. Gally and . Argon, Brittle-to-ductile transitions in the fracture of silicon single crystals by dynamic crack arrest, Philosophical Magazine A, vol.215, issue.3, pp.699-740, 2001.
DOI : 10.1557/JMR.1991.0639

. Grigorenko, Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies, Nature, vol.36, issue.7066, pp.335-338, 2005.
DOI : 10.1038/nature04242

. Henkelman, A climbing image nudged elastic band method for finding saddle points and minimum energy paths, The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol.113, issue.22, pp.9901-137, 2000.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1329672

]. G. Henkelman-et-jónsson, H. Henkelman, and . Jónsson, Improved tangent estimate in the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths and saddle points, The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol.113, issue.22, pp.9978-136, 2000.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1323224

J. P. Hirth and A. G. Evans, Damage of coherent multilayer structures by injection of dislocations or cracks, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.60, issue.7, pp.2372-2376, 1986.
DOI : 10.1063/1.337148

L. Hirth, ]. J. Hirth, and J. Lothe, Theory of dislocations, p.111, 1982.

S. V. Kamat and J. P. Hirth, Dislocation injection in strained multilayer structures, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.67, issue.11, pp.6844-6850, 1990.
DOI : 10.1063/1.345074

. Kelchner, Dislocation nucleation and defect structure during surface indentation, Physical Review B, vol.58, issue.17, pp.11085-11127, 1998.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.58.11085

. Legros, Observation of Giant Diffusivity Along Dislocation Cores, Science, vol.319, issue.5870, pp.1646-1649, 2008.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1151771

. Li, ]. C. Xu, G. Li, and . Xu, Critical conditions for dislocation nucleation at surface steps, Philosophical Magazine, vol.841, issue.20, pp.2957-2970, 2006.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.025503

. Li, ]. C. Xu, G. Li, and . Xu, Geometrical effect on dislocation nucleation at crystal surface nanostructures, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, vol.31, issue.5, pp.443-450, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enganabound.2006.10.009

]. J. Li, The Mechanics and Physics of Defect Nucleation, MRS Bulletin, vol.3, issue.02, pp.151-159, 2007.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.205504

S. G. Liao, Y. H. Srinivasan, M. I. Zhao, Y. T. Baskes, F. Zhu et al., Formation mechanism of wide stacking faults in nanocrystalline Al, Applied Physics Letters, vol.84, issue.18, pp.3564-3566, 2004.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1734689

. Liu, Dislocation nucleation and propagation during thin film deposition under compression, Computational Materials Science, vol.23, issue.1-4, pp.155-165, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0927-0256(01)00231-2

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

. Michler, Plastic deformation of gallium arsenide micropillars under uniaxial compression at room temperature, Applied Physics Letters, vol.90, issue.4, pp.43123-43126, 2007.
DOI : 10.1063/1.2432277

M. J. Mills and P. Stadelmann, A study of the structure of Lomer and 60?? dislocations in aluminium using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Philosophical Magazine A, vol.5, issue.3, pp.355-384, 1989.
DOI : 10.1002/pssa.2210560116

. Olmsted, Atomistic simulations of dislocation mobility in Al, Ni and Al/Mg alloys, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, vol.13, issue.3, pp.371-388, 2005.
DOI : 10.1088/0965-0393/13/3/007

. Patriarche, Plasticity of GaAs(011) at room temperature under concentrated load, Philosophical Magazine Letters, vol.81, issue.8, pp.527-535, 2001.
DOI : 10.1080/09500830110057885

. Pizzagalli, Theoretical study of kinks on screw dislocation in silicon, Physical Review B, vol.77, issue.6, pp.64106-64147, 2008.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.064106

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00274424

. Scandian, Dislocation Nucleation and Multiplication at Crack Tips in Silicon, physica status solidi (a), vol.38, issue.18, pp.67-82, 1999.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1521-396X(199901)171:1<67::AID-PSSA67>3.0.CO;2-T

. Segall, Corroboration of a multiscale approach with all atom calculations in analysis of dislocation nucleation from surface steps, Philosophical Magazine, vol.86, issue.32, pp.5083-5101, 2006.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1020001527113

. Spearot, Nucleation of dislocations from [001] bicrystal interfaces in aluminum, Acta Materialia, vol.53, issue.13, pp.3579-3589, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.actamat.2005.04.012

]. E. Tadmor and S. Hai, A Peierls criterion for the onset of deformation twinning at a crack tip, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol.51, issue.5, pp.765-793, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-5096(03)00005-X

]. J. Thomas, Third-Order Elastic Constants of Aluminum, Physical Review, vol.175, issue.3, pp.955-962, 1968.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.175.955

C. Tromas, Y. Gaillard, and E. J. Woirgard, Nucleation of dislocations during nanoindentation in MgO, Philosophical Magazine, vol.54, issue.33-35, pp.5595-5606, 2006.
DOI : 10.1080/14786430600690499

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00513693

. Van-swygenhoven, Atomic mechanism for dislocation emission from nanosized grain boundaries, Physical Review B, vol.66, issue.2, p.24101, 2002.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.024101

. Vegge, Determination of the of Rate Cross Slip of Screw Dislocations, Physical Review Letters, vol.85, issue.18, pp.3866-3869, 2000.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.3866

. Yamakov, Length-scale effects in the nucleation of extended dislocations in nanocrystalline Al by molecular-dynamics simulation, Acta Materialia, vol.49, issue.14, pp.2713-2722, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-6454(01)00167-7

D. Yamakov, S. R. Wolf, A. K. Phillpot, E. H. Mukherjee, and . Gleiter, Dislocation processes in the deformation of nanocrystalline aluminium by molecular-dynamics simulation, Nature Materials, vol.1, issue.1, pp.45-49, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/nmat700

. Zhou, Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Three-Dimensional Ductile Failure, Physical Review Letters, vol.78, issue.3, pp.479-482, 1997.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.479

. Zimmerman, Surface Step Effects on Nanoindentation, Physical Review Letters, vol.87, issue.16, p.165507, 2001.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.165507