L'Evolution des Galaxies Infrarouges.
Des observations cosmologiques avec ISO a une modelisation de l'infrarouge moyen au submillimetrique

Abstract : This thesis deals with the analysis of the FIRBACK deep survey performed in the far infrared at λ=170 µm with the INFRARED SPACE OBERVATORY whose aim is the study of the galaxies contributing to the Cosmic Infrared Background, and with the modellisation of galaxy evolution in the mid-infrared to submillimeter range.

The FIRBACK survey covers 3. 89 Sq. Deg. in 3 high galactic latitude and low foreground emission fields (2 of which are in the northern sky). I first present the techniques of reduction, processing and calibration of the ISOPHOT cosmological data. I show that there is a good agreement between PHOT and DIRBE on extended emission, thanks to the derivation of the PHOT footprint. Final maps are created, and the survey is confusion limited at σc=45m J y.

I present then the techniques of source extraction and the simulations for photometry needed to build the final catalog of 106 sources between 180 mJy (4σ) and 2.4 Jy. The complementary catalog is made of 90 sources between 135 and 180 mJy. Galaxy counts show a large excess with respect to local counts or
models (with and without evolution), only compatible with strong evolution scenarios. The Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) is resolved at 4 % at 170 µm. The identifications of the sources at other wavelengths suggest that most of the sources are local, but a non negligible part lies above redshift 1.

I have developped a phenomenological model of galaxy evolution in order to constrain galaxy evolution in the infrared and to have a better understanding of what the FIRBACK sources are. Using the local Luminosity Function (LF), and template spectra of starburst galaxies, it is possible to constrain the evolution of the LF using all the available data : deep source counts at 15, 170 and 850 µm and the CIB spectrum. I show that galaxy evolution is dominated by a high infrared luminosity population, peaking at L=2.0*10^11 Redshift distributions are in agreement with available observations. Predictions are possible with our model for the forthcoming space missions such as SIRTF, Planck and FIRST.
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Herve Dole. L'Evolution des Galaxies Infrarouges.
Des observations cosmologiques avec ISO a une modelisation de l'infrarouge moyen au submillimetrique. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2000. Français. ⟨tel-00394938⟩



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