Abstract : Since the 1990's, the nanotechnology represents a research filed under growing development. In particular, metal nanoparticles have incited an enormous interest in catalysis due to their frontier behaviour between classical homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Thus, they can lead to new reactivity trends and in particular to obtain target compounds for medical, pharmaceutical or agrochemical purposes. In this PhD thesis, a new family of polyfunctional chiral ligands derived from 9,10- dihydroanthracene was developed for the stabilization of palladium nanoparticles. The particles were obtained by decomposition of organometallic precursors in the presence of these new stabilizers under hydrogen atmosphere. The particles showed a reproducible size, shape and chemical composition. These materials were applied as catalytic precursors in Suzuki C-C couplings, both in organic and in ionic liquid solvents. In addition, the palladium nanocatalysts were studied in the hydrogenation and also in the dismutation of 1,4- cyclohexadiene in ionic liquid. With the aim to study the Pd coordination chemistry, three complexes were synthesized and fully characterized. The asymmetric induction induced by these compounds was evaluated in enantioselective allyl alkylation and Suzuki C-C coupling processes.