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Dynamique d'atomes dans des potentiels optiques: du chaos quantique au chaos quasi-classique

Abstract : This thesis contains theoretical results about chaos in quantum systems. In its first part, we study the dynamics of the quantum kicked rotor. This system, which is paradigmatic of quantum chaos, exhibits dynamical localization, a decay of diffusion in momentum space. The latter is a purely quantum phenomenon, as it is based on destructive interferences.

As all interference effects, dynamical localization is affected by spontaneous emission. In this manuscript, we propose a method to decrease the effect of spontaneous emission, by using Raman spectroscopy. We perform a full analytical study in very good agreement with our numerical simulations.

As a consequence of its temporal periodicity, the kicked rotor also exhibits quantum resonances, the analogy of the optical Talbot effect. By describing them in position space, we provide a simple and intuitive image of the resonances, based on classical notions like force.

Bose-Einstein condensation has enabled the study of unprecedented quantum phenomena. In particular, the nonlinearity of their evolution equation has made possible the observation of quasi-classical chaos. Here, we propose a method to detect chaos, by measuring the averaged position of the condensate. This method enables us to clearly distinguish chaotic and regular trajectories. Its validity is confirmed by the calculation of the system Lyapunov exponents.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00391054
Contributor : Maxence Lepers <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, June 3, 2009 - 12:11:29 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 21, 2020 - 3:40:56 AM
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Maxence Lepers. Dynamique d'atomes dans des potentiels optiques: du chaos quantique au chaos quasi-classique. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université des Sciences et Technologie de Lille - Lille I, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00391054⟩

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