Abstract : The objective of this work was to develop new methods of deposition and patterning in order to better control the organisation of molecules of biological interest on a solid substrate.
In the first part of the manuscript, we present an original method, the micro-aspiration, which allowed us to reversibly assemble microfluidic channels and to guide liquids through it. We have studied the properties of these systems with simple physical models and fabricated patterns of polymers, nanoparticles, gels, etc.
In the second part, we explored new deposition methods of multilayered phospholipid films on solid substrates and applied it to the fabrication of giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled size. First, the adaptation of conventional techniques (microcontact printing, molding, etc.) allowed us to obtain phospholipid patterns of micrometric size. The deposition has been realized afterward using a receding meniscus under evaporation (capillary assembling). Two deposition regimes have been identified depending on the relative importance of evaporation and viscous forces, allowing a control of the film thickness up to 200 nm with a bilayer resolution. The appearance of wetting instabilities or the guidance with microstructures allowed us to obtain patterns of various shapes. By using these substrates as electrodes, we obtained giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled size by electroformation. All these results open new perspectives for the fabrication of surfaces and micro-patterns of biological interest.