Abstract : In this thesis, we focus on "structural information" in computer graphics, that is the information concerning the structure of 3D objects or scenes. More specifically, we define structural information as a two-scale notion, namely the object and the scene levels and propose a way of structuring 3D Geometry at both levels using the information of symmetry and instancing. In the first part of this thesis, we propose an original method to structure the geometry at the object level based on the information of symmetry. Inspired by the work on principal component analysis, we introduce for this purpose the generalized moment functions of a 3D shape. From the symmetry information that we have computed on the objects of the scene, we present in the second part of this thesis an approach to represent an unstructured 3D scene as a hierarchy of instances adapted to common tasks such as rendering or geometry editing.