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Analyse de la variabilité de forme des signaux : Application aux signaux électrophysiologiques

Abstract : The subject of the thesis is the analysis of shape variability of a set of signals. The main applications are in the processing of electrophysiological signals coming from the auditory pathway or the heart. This signal shape variability is often present in signals generated by biological processes and should contain information. To have an access to this information, the concept of shape difference must be formalized and specific statistical tools are needed. Some methods from the statistical community have recently been proposed by analyzing the variability in a set of signals. These methods work in a functional framework considering data as observed functions. They try to eliminate time variability in order to access to amplitude variability trough “curve registration” algorithms. In this thesis, new methods of shape analysis are proposed which also make use of time realignment (warping) but with a different meaning from curve registration approaches. In fact, these methods give an average shape signal and a shape distance allowing the measure of shape variability. In chapter 1, all these methods are presented and compared to give a guideline to the practitioner in his choice according to the application.

In chapter 2, we are interested in the objective characterisation of tinnitus, an auditory phantom sensation. Indeed, the absence of such a criterion is a major problem. Thus, Ensemble Spontaneous Activity (ESA) from the auditory nerve and the Evoked Potentials (EP) from neural generators on the Guinea pig auditory pathway, with salicylate, a tinnitus generator, are studied. The first part of the work is the presentation of a ESA model. This model is used to test, by simulation, possible neurosensorinal alterations scenarios in presence of salicylate. In addition to the existing spectral index, we proposed to use a shape similarity criterion on the ESA amplitude distribution to detect these alterations. The second part of the chapter deals with the time variability of the EPs on several auditory generators in presence of salicylate.

In chapter 3, applications to the detection of heart pathologies, using shape analysis approaches applied to P-wave, are considered. The concerned pathologies are atrial fibrillation and sleep apnoea.
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Sofiane Boudaoud. Analyse de la variabilité de forme des signaux : Application aux signaux électrophysiologiques. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2006. Français. ⟨tel-00377428⟩

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