Urbanisation et santé à Vientiane (Laos).
Les disparités spatiales de santé dans la ville

Abstract : The health status of the Vientiane population has been established from the medical examination of 2042 adults and 1650 children in 2006. The subjects were tested for chronic disease (diabetes and hypertension), overweight and obesity, deficiency problems (anemia, underweight and chronic malnutrition) and infectious disease (past exposure with flavivirus). These biomedical data were related to the place of residence of the individuals. The different geostatistical and cartographic analyses show that there are spatial health disparities in Vientiane and that they are closely associated with the level of urbanization of corresponding villages - villages are intraurban spatial units whose relevance has been discussed.
Two types of mechanisms can explain why this city harbors spatially differentiated health phenomena. The first one refers to the sociospatial disparities within this city: in Vientiane, characteristics such as age, level of education and standard of living, all of which are risk factors, are actually not randomly distributed. Nevertheless, it would be somewhat inaccurate to interpret health spatial disparities as a reflection of sociospatial disparities - which remain moderate in Vientiane at the beginning of 21st century. In fact, a second type of mechanism takes an active part in the unequal distribution of the diseases in this city: their individual characteristics left aside, inhabitants of more urbanized villages are more affected by diabetes, hypertension, overweight and obesity and less affected by anemia, underweight and chronic malnutrition than those of less urbanized villages. The health of inhabitants is closely associated with the level of urbanization of their place of residence which influences their way of life (i.e. their food, health and other behaviours) through the facilities that it offers and the social standards that it conveys.
Although recognized, the influence that the place of residence has on health should not be regarded as operative in the same manner in all Vientiane inhabitants: this influence varies according their use of urban space (i.e. their spatial capital). This study therefore underscores the influence of the place of residence on health, but it does not yield to a geographical determinism.
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Julie Vallée. Urbanisation et santé à Vientiane (Laos).
Les disparités spatiales de santé dans la ville. Géographie. Université de Nanterre - Paris X, 2008. Français. ⟨tel-00377209⟩

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