Abstract : The reduction of the components dimensions in microelectronics requires a constant improvement of the lithography tools resolution. However, these evolutions become more and more difficult and expensive to operate and could facilitate the appearance of alternative lithography techniques, such as surface-plasmon-assisted lithography. The objective of this Ph.D consists in estimating the performances, the constraints and thus the possible applications and working conditions of this new technique. By focusing on the intrinsic properties of thin metallic films, two complementary approaches were developed. First, the generation of a plasmonic interference field led to print relatively complex but resolution-limited patterns in a photosensitive resist. Then, the realization of highly resolved surface-plasmon-assisted lithography was studied through the conception of a compact and efficient optical nanosource, which geometry can also be adapted to generate arbitrary patterns or to realize a wavelength-accordable source. The results indicate that this near-field and low cost technique would be particularly well-appropriate for specific needs in lithography and that the proposed systems could also be used for other applications, such as optical data storage for example.