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Deixis prosodique multisensorielle : production et perception audiovisuelle de la focalisation contrastive en français

Abstract : The work described in this dissertation is grounded by three major findings. Firstly, numerous researchers have shown that speech is not only auditory but also visual. Secondly, prosody i.e. intonation, rhythm and phrasing, plays a key role in speech. Thirdly, deixis is a core phenomenon in spoken communication and its acquisition by infants. Deixis can be achieved using speech: it is indeed possible to "show with the voice" using prosodic focus for example. These observations enable us to assume that prosodic contrastive focus is rooted not only in audition, as has already been widely explored, but also in vision. The various works presented in this dissertation explore this hypothesis for French. Several production studies analyzing the recordings of six speakers using two different and complementary measurement techniques have shown that focus is signaled visually. Speakers use two different strategies regarding the visible articulatory movements: an absolute strategy and a differential one. The measurements have also shown that other non-articulatory facial gestures may be linked to the production of contrastive focus such as eyebrow and head movements. The link is however widely inter and intra speaker dependent. In parallel, perceptual experiments have enabled us to show that the visual correlates of focus are used for focus information extraction when the auditory modality is absent or degraded. It was also shown that the visual correlates identified in the production studies correspond at least in part to those used in audiovisual perception. These studies have thus shown that prosodic contrastive focus is "visible" and "seen". The findings allow us to sketch a cognitive model of the audiovisual production and perception of contrastive focus in French.
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Marion Dohen. Deixis prosodique multisensorielle : production et perception audiovisuelle de la focalisation contrastive en français. Linguistique. Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble - INPG, 2005. Français. ⟨tel-00370679⟩

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