Abstract : In the last 20 years, heavy ion collisions have been an unique way to study the hadronic matter in the laboratory. The phase diagram of hadronic matter remains unknown, although many experimental and theoretical studies have been done in the last decennia, aiming at studying its phase transitions. After a general introduction, two phases transition of the hadronic matter, liquid-gas and the transition to the Quark Gluon Plasma, are addressed. A general view about the experimental methods to study these phase transitions is presented in chapter three. The most important results of the heavy ion program in the RHIC collider at BNL (Upton, NY, USA) are presented in chapter four. The last three chapters are devoted to the heavy ion program in the future LHC collider at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). In particular, the unique LHC experiment specially designed for heavy ion physics, ALICE and its muon spectrometer are presented.