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LA DESORIENTATION SPATIALE EN AERONAUTIQUE : Apport des Neurosciences intégratives à la conception des postes de pilotage

Abstract : Spatial disorientation is a major source of accidents in aviation. Fighting such phenomenon necessarily entails the understanding of sensory systems that are involved in the perception of self-orientation, in order to adapt accordingly the cockpit displays. The introductory part of the manuscript sets out what is known about the occurrences of spatial disorientation. Some of the fundamental mechanisms of space perception are also presented, in relation to sensory ergonomics applied to the design of cockpit displays. The subsequent experimental studies deal at first with the influence of a head-fixed visual frame, integral to the head, on the perception of the vertical. The results mainly put forward the crucial role of the head-centric reference frame in the processing of oriented visual information. The potential implications of those results on the design of head-mounted displays, which are used in airplanes, are underlined. A second experimental chapter deals with the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on the perception of spatial orientation, a stimulation technique that could be included in the cockpit in order to fight spatial disorientation. It is demonstrated that such a stimulation can influence the subjective vertical, whatever the sensory modality involved. Besides, stimulating the vestibular apparatus gives rise to clearly dissociated effects on the subjective vertical, on the one hand, and the perception of body orientation, on the other hand. The results are compared with the current models of spatial orientation.
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Submitted on : Friday, February 27, 2009 - 4:53:14 PM
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Franck Mars. LA DESORIENTATION SPATIALE EN AERONAUTIQUE : Apport des Neurosciences intégratives à la conception des postes de pilotage. Psychologie. Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II, 2001. Français. ⟨tel-00364838⟩

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