Abstract : The thesis, carried out according to a collaboration between the University of Savoy and a great watch-making factory, deals with the problem of visual quality control of high quality manufactured products. We make the hypothesis that the control of this quality will be still realized many years by a visual inspection of the products. Thus, the present work in this thesis proposes the bases of one sensory metrological model formalizing the visual inspection. This work rests on an approach of sensory analysis. The first chapter presents a bibliographical study of different elements relating to the quality control in general, and particularly, the visual inspection. The chapter 2 describes the generic approach that we propose to perceive, then evaluate an anomaly. This approach separates in a formal way the perception of an anomaly from its evaluation. We show that this distinction gives a better comprehension of the variability sources in the visual inspection. Based on the approaches very largely used within the framework of the sensory analysis, our approach thus formalizes these two steps in order to reduce the variability in the decision of conformity during a visual inspection. The chapter 3 proposes a structuring metrological approach having for objective to guarantee the accuracy and the reduced variability in time and space. Our suggestion, based on the concepts of a dimensional metrology, integrates the specificities related to any sensory measurement carried out by the man, and in particular the part of significant subjectivity which can be associated to this measurement. Based on the evaluation of only one anomaly, we describe in the chapter 4 an approach allowing to decide acceptance or refusal of a product combining various anomalies on various surfaces. Our approach, based on the Taguchi's loss function, makes it possible to generalize with the visual inspection the approaches of tolerance largely used in geometrical quality of the products. The chapter 5 illustrates the application of these concepts within the company with which we collaborated. It also proposes a synthesis of profits that such an approach can produce in a company.