Abstract : Contradictory forces of urban concentration and sprawl and of spatial segregation dominate metropolitan dynamics. Segregation as a mechanism of separation/aggregation leading to unequal and homogenous spaces produces new socioeconomic inequalities through neighbourhood effects. The fight against spatial segregation is a prior goal of urban policies and a prominent element of sustainability. Thus, increasing socio-spatial inequalities lead me to enquire about the underlying reasons of segregation, and more particularly, about those related to the urban growth form. The aim of this thesis is to produce some answers to this question by analysing the impact of the urban form on segregation in the 100 largest French urban areas. Firstly, I propose to measure segregation and to analyse its evolutions during the last 20 years by using indexes and income data at different spatial scales (1984 to 2004 data from Internal Revenue and 2001 data from National Statistical Institute of Economic Studies- Internal Revenue). Secondly, I analyse residential migrations of socio-professional categories in Lyon, Marseille and Lille at the municipality level (1982, 1990 and 1999 General Population Census data). Finally, I test the effect of density and polycentrism through inter-unit disparity and intra-unit homogeneity in urban areas. Results do not show a consistent effect and confirm the ambiguity of the relation between density and segregation. They equally reject the hypothesis of polycentrism as a factor to hinder segregation. This analysis contributes to a better understanding of segregation mechanisms and leads to broad the research agenda in this field.