Abstract : The administrative Kita region in Malinke area, located at about two hundred kilometres west from Bamako, had been isolated for a long time. Until the 1970s, the State influence and impacts on the rural people remained few. Therefore, the dualism between the two circle systems, the static one, “so official”, and the traditional one with reference to rural people, has remained particularly strong in this region.
The operations of the Rural Development Organisations, initially groundnut based until 1995 and which later became predominantly cotton-based to date, had helped to gathered the farmers and provided them with the modern means of production to increase commercial cultures. During the 1980s and especially in the 1990s, we saw the emergence of new local government powers, on issues of “projets de gestion de terroirs”, but which did not have any significant change in the traditional areas.
At the end of the 1990s, the decentralization reform, through the creation of the rural communes, has generated a new power: the locally elected people. The elected have had to make a place between the static power and the traditional power, through the competences transfers from both circles. Here is the stake of the success of the decentralization reform, which is shortly linked to its degree of appropriation by rural people. The land tenure and the natural resources seem to be the key elements of the double competences transfer, and then of the success of the whole decentralization reform.