Abstract : Requirements for high accuracy in laser material processing triggered a considerable amount of effort in investigating ultrashort pulse laser effects in structuring materials on micro and nanoscales. Minimal energy diffusion and high nonlinearity of interaction indicate the possibility of confining energy on smallest spatial scales. The potential of inducing fast structural transitions and generating novel material states with upgraded properties and functions makes ultrashort pulses instruments of choice for precision transformation and structuring of materials. The analyses of ablation phases, material transformation mechanisms, and, especially, their characteristic dynamics offer in turn the key to optimizing laser-matter interaction in view of various criteria related to laser processing: efficiency, accuracy, quality. This thesis summarizes previous works of the author on investigating static and dynamic effects of ultrafast laser energy deposition, with application in material processing. The knowledge derived from the dynamic material response indicates energy relaxation times as a guideline for synergetically improving the interaction between radiation and matter. This is achieved by adapting the incoming energy rate to the material reaction time using newly developed techniques of spatio-temporal beam forming. Optimal coupling of energy gives the possibility to guide the material response towards user-designed directions, offering extended flexibility for quality material processing, and, perhaps, the necessary insight into developing “smart” processing technologies.