Abstract : This thesis work investigates two main points on the researches on active galactic nuclei : the mechanisms which transport gas and the role of the host galaxy on nuclear activity. We conducted an observational comprehensive and statistical study of the gas and
stars on a sample of active and inactive galaxies, on different spatial scales. We obtained then radio and optical spectroscopic data, using the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) SAURON. Our results show that the stellar kinematics is regular while the gas is perturbed, in the central regions of active galaxies. Those perturbations suggest a link between the dynamics in centre of galaxies and the mechanisms which fuel the active nuclei. Finally, we combine the radio and optical data and analyse the kinematics from the outskirts to the central regions of the galaxies. Such study allows investigating the perturbations related to the feeding of the nuclear activity at different spatial scales.