Abstract : After the Cold War, globalization has become one of the major contemporary economic and political transformations. These changes led to the reconfiguration of the world map and the international relations. From this point of view, regionalism seemed to be one of the answers to the benefits of these economic changes at a global level and to the historical example without common measurement of NEPAD. That is to say that the co-operation between States is dominated henceforth by the dynamics of partnership. Today, the partnership for the development has become, politically speaking, one of the major topics in the international relations in the era of the new regionalism. It is about an international event which, on the theoretical level renews and enriches the international analysis by combining transnational flows and the formation of institutions and, on the practical level, diffuses a whole vision of the world while redefining the whole concept of world power. With regard to the institutionalization of NEPAD, the African continent tries to find new ways of keeping up with globalization in order to change its internationally marginal position to avoid its “confinement to the periphery of world politics”. Therefore, NEPAD is at the same time a political answer to the international fact of regionalization and an alternative to the suffering of the institutions, or rather a means of reacting to the lack the impossibility of implementing sustainable democratic values on this continent. This justifies this slippage of the legitimacy of power, resulting from the “African peer review mechanism”.
The involvement of Gabon in this transnational dynamics is, above all, due to the external inspection from money-lenders. It is, thus, a question for this country of transforming an external constraint of inspection into a domestic political strategy in order to abide by the rule of international and regional system. While endeavouring to apprehend the concept of the power in its common sense, one can realize that the Gabonese diplomacy tries to adapt to the global standard to appear as a role model for the implementation of international injunctions. However, this country shows inventiveness with sometimes dodging tactics, trickery, but also circumvention. Thus, under these conditions the description of polity is, indeed, nourished from this particular imaginary based on derision and whose result leads to the formation of hybrid and strange regimes where formal and informal dynamics are intertwined to give meaning to systems of interests. This is what explains the promotion of a certain social and institutional homology between the African countries and the developed world. The external factor undoubtedly influences the internal environment.
This thesis focuses on the thematic of the creation of institutions around a collective dynamics of political change since it is at the core of contemporary issues of Africanist political science. Relating specifically to the new stakes of Africa's development, it focuses on the case of Gabon, by drawing up from successive temporalities an assessment of the historical trajectory of Gabon and NEPAD and examines the evolution of political systems in Africa, their interactions with the local level, the strategies conveyed by influential actors as well as their control over the political environment, by giving reports, from a methodology based on the readings of works and interviews, of the representations that African people have about this program.