Abstract : The first part of this work involves the development of new analytical methods for the speciation analysis of mercury and butyltin compounds in environmental matrices. The optimization of these new methods for speciation analysis is based on the isotope dilution technique and has been developed specially for the simultaneous determination of mercury and butyltin compounds taking into account the simultaneous sample preparation and the simultaneous detection. The analytical development has been carried out for the different environmental matrix found in the aquatic ecosystems: water samples, biological tissues and sediments.
In the second part of this work, the developed analytical techniques have been used to investigate biogeochemical cycles of mercury and butyltin into aquatic environments. Experimental methods, using isotopically enriched species as tracers, have been developed and have allowed the evaluation of mercury transformation mechanisms (methylation/demethylation) in the different compartments of the aquatics systems (in the sediments and the water column). Environmental factors and biological parameters have been also investigated in order to determine the possible link between the mercury transformation processes and the biological activities (bacterio- and phyto-plankton activities).